Biodiversity and ecosystems

Biodiversity and ecosystems, encompassing the vast variety of life on Earth and the natural systems they inhabit, are fundamental to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Their importance is acknowledged explicitly in several SDGs due to their critical role in maintaining environmental balance and supporting human life and well-being.

SDG 14 (Life Below Water) and SDG 15 (Life on Land) are directly focused on the conservation and sustainable use of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, respectively. These goals recognize the intrinsic value of biodiversity and the vital services ecosystems provide, such as habitat for wildlife, carbon sequestration, and soil formation. The preservation and restoration of ecosystems like forests, wetlands, and coral reefs are essential for maintaining biodiversity, which in turn supports ecological resilience and the sustenance of human life.

The role of biodiversity and ecosystems in achieving SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) is significant. The variety of life forms, including plants, animals, and microorganisms, underpins agricultural productivity. Pollinators, soil organisms, and genetic diversity of crops are all crucial for food production and agricultural resilience. Ecosystems support agriculture not just in terms of crop yield but also in sustaining the natural resources like soil and water, upon which agriculture depends.

Similarly, SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) is closely tied to the health of ecosystems. Natural habitats such as forests and wetlands play a key role in filtering and purifying water, maintaining the water cycle, and regulating water flow. This natural filtration process is vital for providing clean drinking water and supporting sanitation systems.

Biodiversity and ecosystems are also crucial for SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being). Natural environments regulate diseases by supporting a balance among species that, in turn, can control pest and disease outbreaks. Additionally, a vast number of medical discoveries, including medicines and treatments, have their origins in biological resources, underscoring the potential of biodiversity in contributing to human health and well-being.

Moreover, biodiversity and ecosystems play a significant role in addressing climate change, linking to SDG 13 (Climate Action). Ecosystems such as forests and oceans are major carbon sinks, absorbing and storing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Protecting and restoring these ecosystems are vital strategies for climate change mitigation. Additionally, healthy ecosystems provide crucial services for climate change adaptation, such as protecting against extreme weather events and helping communities adjust to changing environmental conditions.

However, achieving these goals requires addressing threats to biodiversity and ecosystems, such as habitat destruction, pollution, overfishing, and invasive species. It also involves balancing the needs of human development with environmental conservation, ensuring sustainable use of natural resources.

Biodiversity and ecosystems are integral to achieving multiple SDGs. Their conservation and sustainable use not only benefit the environment but are essential for food security, water purity, human health, and combating climate change. The protection and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystems are therefore crucial steps towards sustainable development and ensuring the well-being of current and future generations.


Indigenous People and Nature, Insights for Social, Ecological, and Technological Sustainability, 2022, Pages 199-216

The indigenous peoples make a lasting impact on the society and people through their activities such as protection of the ecosystem, agriculture, and the maintenance of ethnic origin; these people are faced with many risks regarding health, sanitation, water, climate change, and pandemic. The chapter aims to determine the integration of the indigenous population into society and the functions of social work in this regard.

Animal Behaviour, Volume 186, April 2022, Pages 151-177

The authors investigate whether applying multiple welfare indicators’ and triangulating them can lead to converged and corroborating evidence of welfare, or whether the indicators' contradict one another.

Pedobiologia, Volume 90, March 2022

This article supports SDG's 13 and 15 by discussing the main findings from the Special Issue on the impact of global changes on soil biodiversity: from fauna, to fungi, soil organisms and microorganisms.
This article demonstrates that, by actively engaging in the interdependent phases of recognizing hybridity, enabling conditions for reflexivity and partnership building, 'inclusivity' tensions can not only be acknowledged but softened and, in some cases, reframed when managing for biodiversity, equity, and justice goals.

Soil Security, Volume 6, March 2022

A research paper by Hannam 2022 underlines the complexities of soil and land degradation and the pursuit of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN), emphasizing its integration into global policy frameworks like the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal 15 and the Convention to Combat Desertification. It argues for essential reforms in soil governance, advocating for inclusive participation, legislative provisions, and practical guidance to ensure progress towards LDN targets while maintaining soil and ecosystem functions.

The Lancet Planetary Health, Volume 6, February 2022

A Personal View on the determinants of planetary health from the perspective of Indigenous peoples, in the context of SDGs 15 and 17, focusing specifically on identifying determinants that are integral to the health and sustainability of the planet.

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Volume 257, January 2022

This article advances SDG # 15 and # 11 by investigating one of the factors leading to the global decline of bee populations. Pathogens, which need overcome the insect defenses such as the physical barriers, the body cuticle and peritrophic matrix (primary defenses), as well as the secondary defenses with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and the enzyme lysozyme were evaluated according to cuticle maturation.

Wildfire is one of the most critical natural disasters that threaten wildlands and forest resources. Traditional firefighting systems, which are based on ground crew inspection, have several limits and can expose firefighters’ lives to danger. Thus, remote sensing technologies have become one of the most demanded strategies to fight against wildfires, especially UAV-based remote sensing technologies. They have been adopted to detect forest fires at their early stages, before becoming uncontrollable.

An exploration of how pollution affects biological diversity, supports SDG 15.
Supports SDG 3: biological diversity of parasites makes treatment of Chagas Disease difficult