Biodiversity and ecosystems

Biodiversity and ecosystems, encompassing the vast variety of life on Earth and the natural systems they inhabit, are fundamental to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Their importance is acknowledged explicitly in several SDGs due to their critical role in maintaining environmental balance and supporting human life and well-being.

SDG 14 (Life Below Water) and SDG 15 (Life on Land) are directly focused on the conservation and sustainable use of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, respectively. These goals recognize the intrinsic value of biodiversity and the vital services ecosystems provide, such as habitat for wildlife, carbon sequestration, and soil formation. The preservation and restoration of ecosystems like forests, wetlands, and coral reefs are essential for maintaining biodiversity, which in turn supports ecological resilience and the sustenance of human life.

The role of biodiversity and ecosystems in achieving SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) is significant. The variety of life forms, including plants, animals, and microorganisms, underpins agricultural productivity. Pollinators, soil organisms, and genetic diversity of crops are all crucial for food production and agricultural resilience. Ecosystems support agriculture not just in terms of crop yield but also in sustaining the natural resources like soil and water, upon which agriculture depends.

Similarly, SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) is closely tied to the health of ecosystems. Natural habitats such as forests and wetlands play a key role in filtering and purifying water, maintaining the water cycle, and regulating water flow. This natural filtration process is vital for providing clean drinking water and supporting sanitation systems.

Biodiversity and ecosystems are also crucial for SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being). Natural environments regulate diseases by supporting a balance among species that, in turn, can control pest and disease outbreaks. Additionally, a vast number of medical discoveries, including medicines and treatments, have their origins in biological resources, underscoring the potential of biodiversity in contributing to human health and well-being.

Moreover, biodiversity and ecosystems play a significant role in addressing climate change, linking to SDG 13 (Climate Action). Ecosystems such as forests and oceans are major carbon sinks, absorbing and storing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Protecting and restoring these ecosystems are vital strategies for climate change mitigation. Additionally, healthy ecosystems provide crucial services for climate change adaptation, such as protecting against extreme weather events and helping communities adjust to changing environmental conditions.

However, achieving these goals requires addressing threats to biodiversity and ecosystems, such as habitat destruction, pollution, overfishing, and invasive species. It also involves balancing the needs of human development with environmental conservation, ensuring sustainable use of natural resources.

Biodiversity and ecosystems are integral to achieving multiple SDGs. Their conservation and sustainable use not only benefit the environment but are essential for food security, water purity, human health, and combating climate change. The protection and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystems are therefore crucial steps towards sustainable development and ensuring the well-being of current and future generations.


Rohit Kamboj, Sweta Kamboj, Shikha Kamboj, Priyanka Kriplani, Rohit Dutt, Kumar Guarve, Ajmer Singh Grewal, Arun Lal Srivastav, Surya Prakash Gautam, Chapter 1 - Climate uncertainties and biodiversity: An overview, Editor(s): Arun Srivastav, Ashutosh Dubey, Abhishek Kumar, Sushil Kumar Narang, Moonis Ali Khan, Visualization Techniques for Climate Change with Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, Elsevier, 2023, Pages 1-14, ISBN 9780323997140

This content aligns with Goal 15: Life on Land by focusing on how biological systems are being affected by anthropogenic climate change at many dimensions, from ecosystems to genes, according to data from around the world.

Sylvester Chibueze Izah, Adams Ovie Iyiola, Baturh Yarkwan, Glory Richard, Chapter 7 - Impact of air quality as a component of climate change on biodiversity-based ecosystem services, Editor(s): Arun Srivastav, Ashutosh Dubey, Abhishek Kumar, Sushil Kumar Narang, Moonis Ali Khan, Visualization Techniques for Climate Change with Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, Elsevier, 2023, Pages 123-148, ISBN 9780323997140

This content aligns with Goal 15: Life on Land and Goal 3: Good health and well-being by examining the impacts of air pollution on human health and the environment, and exploring strategies to move toward cleaner ambient air.

Plants and their Interaction to Environmental Pollution: Damage Detection, Adaptation, Tolerance, Physiological and Molecular Responses, Volume 1, 1 January 2022

This chapter aligns with Goal 15: Life on land by reviewing the effect of various types of environmental pollution on plant growth, development, physiological, molecular performance, and some other unexpected response to various types of environmental pollution.
It is important to learn how to manage Asian male elephant reproductive behaviour for the long-term sustainability of the species. The authors provide important information that can be directly applied to improving the well-being of elephants and other wildlife.

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -Part A : Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 272, October 2022

This article advances SDG # 14 by looking at the impact that environmental changes and anthropogenic threats are having on marine mammals through the assessment of different stress biomarkers in certain body tissues of chronically affected and bycaught striped dolphins.
This article reports the significant climate mitigation and adaptation efforts via marine conservation activities.
This content aligns with Goal 15: Life on Land by highlighting the exceptional biodiversity and ecology of tropical birds.
This chapter advances the UN SDG goals 12 and 11 by focusing mainly on the IPLC perspective in seabird conservation. By understanding this worldview and the associated approaches, we can set the stage to build a bridge between both groups in an effort to achieve more effective approaches to seabird conservation.
This articles identifies the current issues in the governance of global marine protected areas, and propose viable solutions to address those issues to enable effective marine governance.
This study reveals that climate change reduces the variety of wetland ecosystem services and increases socio-economic vulnerability and economic stress.