Biodiversity and ecosystems

Biodiversity and ecosystems, encompassing the vast variety of life on Earth and the natural systems they inhabit, are fundamental to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Their importance is acknowledged explicitly in several SDGs due to their critical role in maintaining environmental balance and supporting human life and well-being.

SDG 14 (Life Below Water) and SDG 15 (Life on Land) are directly focused on the conservation and sustainable use of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, respectively. These goals recognize the intrinsic value of biodiversity and the vital services ecosystems provide, such as habitat for wildlife, carbon sequestration, and soil formation. The preservation and restoration of ecosystems like forests, wetlands, and coral reefs are essential for maintaining biodiversity, which in turn supports ecological resilience and the sustenance of human life.

The role of biodiversity and ecosystems in achieving SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) is significant. The variety of life forms, including plants, animals, and microorganisms, underpins agricultural productivity. Pollinators, soil organisms, and genetic diversity of crops are all crucial for food production and agricultural resilience. Ecosystems support agriculture not just in terms of crop yield but also in sustaining the natural resources like soil and water, upon which agriculture depends.

Similarly, SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) is closely tied to the health of ecosystems. Natural habitats such as forests and wetlands play a key role in filtering and purifying water, maintaining the water cycle, and regulating water flow. This natural filtration process is vital for providing clean drinking water and supporting sanitation systems.

Biodiversity and ecosystems are also crucial for SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being). Natural environments regulate diseases by supporting a balance among species that, in turn, can control pest and disease outbreaks. Additionally, a vast number of medical discoveries, including medicines and treatments, have their origins in biological resources, underscoring the potential of biodiversity in contributing to human health and well-being.

Moreover, biodiversity and ecosystems play a significant role in addressing climate change, linking to SDG 13 (Climate Action). Ecosystems such as forests and oceans are major carbon sinks, absorbing and storing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Protecting and restoring these ecosystems are vital strategies for climate change mitigation. Additionally, healthy ecosystems provide crucial services for climate change adaptation, such as protecting against extreme weather events and helping communities adjust to changing environmental conditions.

However, achieving these goals requires addressing threats to biodiversity and ecosystems, such as habitat destruction, pollution, overfishing, and invasive species. It also involves balancing the needs of human development with environmental conservation, ensuring sustainable use of natural resources.

Biodiversity and ecosystems are integral to achieving multiple SDGs. Their conservation and sustainable use not only benefit the environment but are essential for food security, water purity, human health, and combating climate change. The protection and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystems are therefore crucial steps towards sustainable development and ensuring the well-being of current and future generations.

Elsevier,

Pierre Marmonier, Diana Maria Paola Galassi, Kathryn Korbel, Murray Close, Thibault Datry, Clemens Karwautz, Chapter 5 - Groundwater biodiversity and constraints to biological distribution, Editor(s): Florian Malard, Christian Griebler, Sylvie Rétaux, Groundwater Ecology and Evolution (Second Edition), Academic Press, 2023, Pages 113-140, ISBN 9780128191194

This content aligns with Goal 14: Life Under Water by covering groundwater biodiversity and constraints to biological distribution
Elsevier,

Stanislaw Sieniutycz, Chapter 6 - Biodiversity maintenance in food webs, Editor(s): Stanislaw Sieniutycz, Complexity and Complex Ecological Systems, Elsevier, 2023, Pages 75-97, ISBN 9780443192371

This content aligns with Goal 15: Life on Land by introducing the subject of trophic relationships in coastal and estuarine ecosystems.
Elsevier,

Nikolay Manchev Petrov, Mariya Ivanova Stoyanova, Rajarshi Kumar Gaur, Chapter 12 - Biodiversity and characterization of economically important viruses on potato cultivars, Editor(s): Rajarshi Kumar Gaur, Basavaprabhu L. Patil, Ramasamy Selvarajan, Plant RNA Viruses, Academic Press, 2023, Pages 245-270, ISBN 9780323953399

This content aligns with Goal 15: Life on Earth as it discusses the different viruses that can infect potatoes which are a problem for the quality and the quantity of global potato production which can exacerbate any food security issues.
The breeding of captive wild species can play a crucial role in their preservation. One major barrier to successful captive breeding is the difficulty of replicating the natural environment. In this study the authors provide suggestions and recommendations to facilitate future breeding efforts for captive jaguars.
Elsevier,

Andrew J. Boulton, Maria Elina Bichuette, Kathryn Korbel, Fabio Stoch, Matthew L. Niemiller, Grant C. Hose, Simon Linke, Chapter 23 - Recent concepts and approaches for conserving groundwater biodiversity, Editor(s): Florian Malard, Christian Griebler, Sylvie Rétaux, Groundwater Ecology and Evolution (Second Edition), Academic Press, 2023, Pages 525-550, ISBN 9780128191194

This content aligns with Goal 14: Life under Water by exploring different approaches for conserving groundwater biodiversity.
Elsevier,

Chapter 13 - Applications of LiDAR in Biodiversity Conservation, Ecohydrology, and Ecological Process Modeling of Forest Ecosystems, Editor(s): Qinghua Guo, Yanjun Su, Tianyu Hu, LiDAR Principles, Processing and Applications in Forest Ecology, Academic Press, 2023, Pages 407-442, ISBN 9780128238943

This content aligns with Goal 15: Life on Land by exploring the role and advantages of LiDAR in biodiversity monitoring in forest ecosystems.
Elsevier,

Loke Ming Chou, Chapter 10 - Sustaining marine biodiversity in Singapore's heavily urbanized coast, Editor(s): David Ting, Paul O'Brien, Progress in Sustainable Development, Elsevier, 2023, Pages 265-282, ISBN 9780323992077

This content aligns with Goal 14: Life below water by investigating how Singapore developed initiatives to protect and enhance marine biodiversity despite intense coastal development.
Earth
Earth Day is celebrated every year on April 22nd, and it is a global event aimed at raising awareness and promoting action towards environmental protection. It was first celebrated in 1970, and since then, it has become one of the largest civic events in the world, with over one billion people participating in activities such as clean-up campaigns, tree-planting initiatives, and educational programs. The theme for 2023 is Invest in Our Planet, a campaign that will focus on engaging governments, institutions, businesses and individuals in the fight against the climate crisis.
Elsevier,

Theriogenology Wild, Volume 2, 2023, 100024

The rescue of wild animals after major environmental disasters is complex and requires an an integrative approach. Conservation scientists describe a successful example that lead to the reproduction of the only pair of Jaguars under reproductive age saved from the devastating Pantanal wildfires that killed over 16.9 million vertebrates in 2018..
Elsevier,

Shalini Rai, Ram Prasad, Chapter 1 - Biology, biodiversity, and biotechnology of Trichoderma, Editor(s): Shalini Rai, Ram Prasad,
New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Elsevier, 2023, Pages 1-28, ISBN 9780323998901

This content aligns with Goal 15: Life on Land by giving an overview of of trichoderma biology, biodiversity, and biotechnological approaches in the extreme conditions of climate.

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