Gender equality and women's empowerment

Gender equality and women's empowerment play a vital role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) outlined by the United Nations. Acknowledging the significance of SDG 5, which explicitly targets gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls, it's worth noting that these elements are fundamentally tied to all 17 goals. Each goal, whether it pertains to poverty eradication, quality education, or climate action, is directly or indirectly affected by gender dynamics. Gender inequality inhibits economic growth (SDG 8) by depriving economies of the full potential of half its population, thereby exacerbating poverty (SDG 1) and hunger (SDG 2). Additionally, gender-based discrimination can limit access to quality education (SDG 4) and decent work (SDG 8) for women and girls, further perpetuating inequality. In health matters, gender roles and stereotypes often result in disparities in healthcare access and outcomes (SDG 3). With respect to environmental sustainability (SDGs 13, 14, and 15), women, particularly those in rural areas, bear the brunt of climate change impacts, but they also hold unique knowledge and skills crucial for mitigation and adaptation strategies. Likewise, women's underrepresentation in decision-making roles limits their influence on peace and justice (SDG 16) and partnerships for goals (SDG 17). Thus, achieving gender equality isn't only about justice for women and girls, but also about progress on every SDG. Women's empowerment creates a multiplier effect that boosts economic growth and promotes sustainable development, thereby setting a direct path towards achieving the SDGs. Encouragingly, concerted efforts worldwide are recognizing and amplifying women's roles in society, placing gender equality and women's empowerment at the heart of the SDGs. Such advancements signify a positive stride towards a balanced and equitable world.

Introduction: Women continue to be underrepresented in oncology clinical trials, leading to poor, underpowered subgroup analyses that cannot be generalized to cancer patients in practice. In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released an Action Plan, which included actions to improve the quality and reporting of demographic subgroup data. We sought to evaluate the five-year progress since the release of this report by assessing the credibility of sex-specific subgroup analyses in oncology clinical trials.
Elsevier, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 154, December 2021
Mobility is a critical element of one's quality of life regardless of one's age. Although the challenges for women are more significant than those for men as they age, far less is known about the gender differences in mobility patterns of older adults, especially in the United States (US) context. This paper reports on a study that examined potential gender gaps in mobility patterns of older adults (aged 65 years and over) in the US by analyzing data from the 2017 National Household Travel Survey.

Gender differences in the assessment of thermal comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in the Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) have not previously been investigated, despite the prevalence of the overcooling of indoor spaces. This study investigated the effect of sex, age and body mass index on subjective thermal comfort perceptions, comfort temperature and IEQ satisfaction in offices using our thermal comfort surveys in Qatar, India, and Japan. Data from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) databases were used for comparison.

Elsevier,

Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Volume 5, 2021, Pages 4481-4549

This chapter advances goals 3 and 5 by examining the complexities of gender in agriculture, how their roles differ with solutions identified for future progress.
Gender norms also apply to the expectations around food and cooking. "I am a widow therefore I can cook: I am a widower therefore I need someone to cook for me" is unfounded.
Elsevier,

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Challenging Issues in the Modern Era of Individualized Medicine, 2022, Pages 23-38

Focuses on the evidence for PCOS pathogenesis in women and underlying molecular gateways enabling its development during hyperandrogenic gestations in animal models. Support the SDG target 3.7.1 Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods.
Women who experience physical IPV are a vulnerable population who disproportionately use abortion services, both within and outside the legal system. The specific needs of this population should be considered when increasing the availability of reproductive care in India.
To help create awareness and take steps towards eliminating violence against women, November 25th is designated as International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. Elsevier has curated a freely available Special Collection of book chapters and journal articles related to this important theme to highlight the urgent need to end violence against women and girls.
Underneath the façade of supposedly bubbly girls, living daily lives in many parts of Nigeria lies the problem of lack of access to proper menstrual hygiene management tools or kits. From schools to business places, religious organizations amongst others, a hive of women and girls face the harsh reality of inability to manage their periods due to poor access to water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities, common in many low- and middle-income countries of which Nigeria sits top.
Elsevier, Women's Studies International Forum, Volume 89, 1 November 2021
This article presents unique data on the economic and social impacts of Violence against Women and Girls (VAWG) in development contexts. The article draws on quantitative and qualitative data from over 5120 women in Ghana (2066 respondents) and Pakistan (3054 respondents) collected between 2016 and 2018 to assess the impacts on productivity, primarily through presenteeism and absenteeism, in paid and unpaid work due to a range of forms of VAWG.

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