Sustainable cities and human settlements

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11 aims to "Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable." This goal acknowledges the growing importance of urban areas, as it's projected that by 2050, nearly 70% of the world's population will live in cities. Consequently, cities bear significant implications for sustainability, economic growth, and societal wellbeing.

Inclusivity is a key feature of sustainable cities. This refers to equitable access to opportunities, public services, and amenities, regardless of a person's background or circumstances. It implies the availability of affordable and adequate housing, thus addressing issues of homelessness and substandard living conditions.

Safety in cities means ensuring urban environments that protect their inhabitants from both physical harm and psychological distress. This involves addressing crime rates, traffic accidents, and potential hazards from poor infrastructure, while also considering the impacts of noise, pollution, and overcrowdedness on mental health.

Resilience is another important aspect, particularly in the face of climate change. Resilient cities can withstand and quickly recover from shocks such as natural disasters or economic crises. This involves aspects such as resilient infrastructure, disaster risk reduction strategies, and adaptive capacities at the community level.

Sustainability, finally, requires cities to function in a way that doesn't compromise future generations' ability to meet their own needs. This includes sustainable urban planning to reduce environmental impact, promote energy efficiency, and conserve resources. It also considers the importance of green spaces for biodiversity and the wellbeing of urban residents.

SDG 11 is interconnected with many other SDGs. For example, sustainable urban transport systems contribute to SDG 13 (Climate Action) by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Meanwhile, ensuring access to green and public spaces supports SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being).

Achieving sustainable cities and human settlements requires cooperation and participation from various stakeholders, including government authorities, urban planners, businesses, and citizens. Through their collective efforts, cities can be transformed into hubs of sustainability, resilience, and inclusivity, contributing significantly towards the realization of the SDGs.

The objective of this paper is to critically analyse the innovative passive nZEB building concept ‘2226’ regarding its climate impact via the initial prototype building ‘be 2226’.

Urban Governance, Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2021, Pages 81-88


Cities are at the forefront of the global challenges of climate change. Compared to other urban problems, the complexity and uncertainty of climate change presents new governance challenges.
The United Nations General Assembly decided that International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples would be observed every year on 9th August. On this day, people from around the world are encouraged to help spread the UN’s message on the protection and promotion of the rights of indigenous peoples. Elsevier is pleased to share this special collection of freely available articles to help spread awareness about this important topic. Please feel free to download and share these papers.
This new façade reduces the carbon footprint by over 34%; thermal conductivity by over 64% and reduces he related cooling energy by over 14%. The new façade can recover the additional cost investment after 3.5 years due to the energy savings.

Building and Environment, Volume 219, 1 July 2022

Climate vulnerability modelling of Welsh (UK) housing stock. Propensity for summertime overheating and moisture build up in a majority of Welsh housing. Cooling and ventilation strategies will be required to mitigate future discomfort, whilst ensuring occupant health and wellbeing.

Electoral Studies,
Volume 79,

Climate action seems to be more popular among those who vote.
This webinar series is supported by Elsevier journals to help advance science & engineering for a sustainable future for human and ecological health through global interactions. The focus of each webinar will support at least one of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals. See This specific webinar will focus on "Recent Progress on Urban Heat Mitigation Technologies" presented by Prof. Mat Santamouris, Distinguished Professor, Arts Design and Architecture, UNSW Sydney. Sign up for free here:
The Paris Agreement goal of stabilizing temperature below 1.5C calls for a reduction of global energy consumption. Energy Efficiency policies are necessary but not sufficient to reduce energy consumption. Energy Conservation and Energy Sufficiency Policies complement Energy Efficiency policies, together they can reduce energy demand. The article presents some existing and new policies which address sufficiency. There is the need for coherent policy package with different types of policy instruments addressing efficiency and sufficiency.
This study found that increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events caused by human-induced climate change challenges progress on sustainable city development, but could also accelerate activities to enable cities to become more resilient.

Handbook of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Photovoltaic Systems: Modeling, Control, Optimization, Forecasting and Fault Diagnosis, 2022, Pages 149-182

This chapter contributes to SDG goals 7 and 11 by exploring optimization of photovoltaic systems using artificial intelligence techniques, meaning improved production and use of this essential renewable energy source.