Sustainable cities and human settlements

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11 aims to "Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable." This goal acknowledges the growing importance of urban areas, as it's projected that by 2050, nearly 70% of the world's population will live in cities. Consequently, cities bear significant implications for sustainability, economic growth, and societal wellbeing.

Inclusivity is a key feature of sustainable cities. This refers to equitable access to opportunities, public services, and amenities, regardless of a person's background or circumstances. It implies the availability of affordable and adequate housing, thus addressing issues of homelessness and substandard living conditions.

Safety in cities means ensuring urban environments that protect their inhabitants from both physical harm and psychological distress. This involves addressing crime rates, traffic accidents, and potential hazards from poor infrastructure, while also considering the impacts of noise, pollution, and overcrowdedness on mental health.

Resilience is another important aspect, particularly in the face of climate change. Resilient cities can withstand and quickly recover from shocks such as natural disasters or economic crises. This involves aspects such as resilient infrastructure, disaster risk reduction strategies, and adaptive capacities at the community level.

Sustainability, finally, requires cities to function in a way that doesn't compromise future generations' ability to meet their own needs. This includes sustainable urban planning to reduce environmental impact, promote energy efficiency, and conserve resources. It also considers the importance of green spaces for biodiversity and the wellbeing of urban residents.

SDG 11 is interconnected with many other SDGs. For example, sustainable urban transport systems contribute to SDG 13 (Climate Action) by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Meanwhile, ensuring access to green and public spaces supports SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being).

Achieving sustainable cities and human settlements requires cooperation and participation from various stakeholders, including government authorities, urban planners, businesses, and citizens. Through their collective efforts, cities can be transformed into hubs of sustainability, resilience, and inclusivity, contributing significantly towards the realization of the SDGs.


Handbook of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Photovoltaic Systems: Modeling, Control, Optimization, Forecasting and Fault Diagnosis, 2022, Pages 149-182

This chapter contributes to SDG goals 7 and 11 by exploring optimization of photovoltaic systems using artificial intelligence techniques, meaning improved production and use of this essential renewable energy source.
Rhode Island is the smallest and the second-most densely populated state in the USA. It is also one of the most severely affected states on the Eastern Seaboard due to Climate Change.
The study assessed the perceptions of indigenous peoples on the Vietnam payments for forest environmental services (PFES) program. The majority of indigenous people were satisfied with PFES participation.

The Journal of Climate Change and Health,
Volume 6,

The present study conducted a systematic literature review on the related effects, mechanisms of vulnerability, and adaptive responses and coping strategies to climate change related mental health impacts specific to global Indigenous Peoples.

Mohamed Dardir, Umberto Berardi, Chapter 13 - Air quality and heat-related health impacts of increasing urban greenery cover, Editor(s): Ansar Khan, Hashem Akbari, Francesco Fiorito, Sk Mithun, Dev Niyogi, Global Urban Heat Island Mitigation, Elsevier, 2022, Pages 269-300, ISBN 9780323855396,

This chapter advances UN SDG goals 11, 13, and 3 by developing an integrated approach, including statistical data elaborations and microclimate simulations, to look at the impact of increasing the urban green infrastructure on the urban environment, air quality levels, and heat-related health responses.

Sabiha Sultana, A.N.V. Satyanarayana, Chapter 4 - Urban heat island: land cover changes, management, and mitigation strategies, Editor(s): Ansar Khan, Hashem Akbari, Francesco Fiorito, Sk Mithun, Dev Niyogi, Global Urban Heat Island Mitigation, Elsevier, 2022, Pages 71-93, ISBN 9780323855396,

This chapter advances UN SDG goals 11, 13, and 3 by discussing Remote Sensing-based strategies for managing land cover and ultimately mitigating anthropogenic heating and excess emission of GHG and pollutants by promoting green belts, vast plantation programs, and utilizing carbon-credit projects.
The Zambezi Riparian Region (ZRR) is a lifeline and home to ∼40 million people who depend heavily on the river basin for their livelihood. It also furnishes 8 of its riparian countries with goods and services on which hydropower production and food security anchor. The sustainability of the ZRR is threatened by extreme climate events. Here, we interrogate consecutive dry days (CDDs), an effective metric of extreme climatic events with implications on drought-driven water availability. We use ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to understand CDDs.
This article supports SDGs 9, 11 and 13 by employing an Urban-Water-Energy (UWE)-Nexus approach to understand water and energy demand and their interactions in both space and time for Rhode Island and quantifies the extent and exposure of the Urban Heat Island effects among its towns and urban populations using high-resolution details.

Roberta Mendonça De Carvalho, Claudio Fabian Szlafsztein, Ecosystem Services and Air Pollution - Nature's Main Provider Interconnects Forest and Cities to Regulate Air Quality, Editor(s): Dominick A. DellaSala, Michael I. Goldstein, Imperiled: The Encyclopedia of Conservation, Elsevier, 2022, Pages 88-97, ISBN 9780128211397

This chapter advances the UN SDG goals 11 and 15 by discussing air pollution, ecosystem services, and the importance of vegetation as it assures pollution reduction services. Considering the essential role of cities in human life, it focuses on the benefits of urban vegetation as a leading ecosystem service provider, promoting awareness of the importance of natural elements for the urban environment.
This Series paper supports SDG 3 and 11 by presenting an expanded framework of pathways through which city planning affects health, incorporating 11 integrated urban system policies and 11 integrated urban and transport interventions addressing current and emerging issues.