Water and sanitation

Water and sanitation are pivotal elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), primarily encapsulated in SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). This goal seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. This objective directly addresses the current global water crisis, where nearly 2.2 billion people live without access to safe water, and about 4.2 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.

By focusing on improving water quality, increasing water-use efficiency, implementing integrated water resources management at all levels, and protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems, SDG 6 addresses not only direct human needs but also the broader ecological health of the planet. Furthermore, efforts towards achieving SDG 6 indirectly promote several other SDGs.

For instance, water and sanitation are crucial to achieving SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being), as clean water and proper sanitation facilities reduce the spread of water-borne diseases and significantly lower child and maternal mortality rates. Likewise, they are foundational to SDG 4 (Quality Education), given that the provision of water and sanitation facilities in schools significantly impacts the attendance and performance of students, particularly for girls.

SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) also intersects with water and sanitation, as sustainable and efficient water management is critical for agriculture, which remains the largest global water consumer. The necessity of water for food production and the potential impact of improved water management on crop yields and livestock health makes SDG 6 integral to achieving zero hunger.

SDG 6 contributes to SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) as well. Access to clean water and sanitation can enhance economic productivity by reducing time spent gathering water, reducing healthcare costs due to water-related diseases, and even creating jobs in water and sanitation services sectors.

In terms of environmental impact, the sustainable management of water resources is essential for SDG 13 (Climate Action), as water is a key factor in managing climate change due to its role in agriculture and energy production.

Background: A few studies have reported an increased risk of birth defects (BD) with maternal exposure to nitrate in drinking water. We examined this association in a large cohort study with well-characterized exposure. Methods: Danish singletons liveborn to Danish-born parents from 1991–2013 were identified using civil and patient registries (n=1,018,914). Exposure to nitrate was estimated using a spatial model based on national data linked with individual addresses. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using logistic regression.
A good paper looking into water quality in Kenya and how water companies needs to improve on the water quality chemically by adjusting the Calcium and Alkalinity concentration

Plastic Pollution and Marine Conservation: Approaches to Protect Biodiversity and Marine Life, Volume 1, 1 January 2022

This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation and Goal 14: Life below water by arguing that further steps for the optimal management of MPAs should aim to improve the efficiency of the whole plastic waste management cycle, thus preventing and reducing debris entering the marine environment.

Mohammad Mehdi Golbini Mofrad, Iman Parseh, Mokhtar Mahdavi,

Chapter 11 - Hazardous and industrial wastewaters: from cutting-edge treatment strategies or layouts to micropollutant removal,

Editors: Abdul Mohammad and Wei Ang,

Integrated and Hybrid Process Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment,



Pages 233-251,

ISBN 9780128230312

This chapter advances SDG 6 and 9 by identifying and investigating state-of-the-art remediation approaches and technologies that help the disposal of hazardous sewage for sustainable and safe reuse.
Land use and land cover changes in the Jedeb and Chemoga watersheds have been detected in the past 29 years. 
This paper addresses pharmaceutical detection in groundwater.
Figure illustrating the intervention delivery and data collection timeline.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by investigating a low-cost behavioural intervention designed to increase latrine use and safe disposal of child faeces in India. The study found the intervention modestly increased latrine use and markedly increased safe disposal of child faeces in the short term, but was unlikely to reduce exposure to pathogens to a level necessary to achieve health gains.
This article contributes to research on public policy and water sanitation.
This paper presents a water resilience assessment framework that includes a set of resilience indicators that will guide in building urban water resilience.

Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Volume 125, February 2022

The paper supports SDG 6 and 3 by discussing toxins in water and the risk of using contaminated water to process food.