Water and sanitation

Water and sanitation are pivotal elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), primarily encapsulated in SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). This goal seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. This objective directly addresses the current global water crisis, where nearly 2.2 billion people live without access to safe water, and about 4.2 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.

By focusing on improving water quality, increasing water-use efficiency, implementing integrated water resources management at all levels, and protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems, SDG 6 addresses not only direct human needs but also the broader ecological health of the planet. Furthermore, efforts towards achieving SDG 6 indirectly promote several other SDGs.

For instance, water and sanitation are crucial to achieving SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being), as clean water and proper sanitation facilities reduce the spread of water-borne diseases and significantly lower child and maternal mortality rates. Likewise, they are foundational to SDG 4 (Quality Education), given that the provision of water and sanitation facilities in schools significantly impacts the attendance and performance of students, particularly for girls.

SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) also intersects with water and sanitation, as sustainable and efficient water management is critical for agriculture, which remains the largest global water consumer. The necessity of water for food production and the potential impact of improved water management on crop yields and livestock health makes SDG 6 integral to achieving zero hunger.

SDG 6 contributes to SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) as well. Access to clean water and sanitation can enhance economic productivity by reducing time spent gathering water, reducing healthcare costs due to water-related diseases, and even creating jobs in water and sanitation services sectors.

In terms of environmental impact, the sustainable management of water resources is essential for SDG 13 (Climate Action), as water is a key factor in managing climate change due to its role in agriculture and energy production.


Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Microplastics and Nanoplastics: Occurrence, Environmental Impacts and Treatment Processes, 2023, Pages 387-403

This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation, Goal 13: Climate action, and Goal 14: Life below water by providing an overview of the state of knowledge of interactions between climate change and MPs/NPs.

The Lancet Global Health, Volume 10, August 2022

This Comment article supports SDGs 3, 6, and 10 by highlighting major disparities in the coverage and quality of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services for minority ethnic groups in Bangladesh.
Community Care,

uan Cuong Nguyen, Thi Thanh Huyen Nguyen, Quoc Ba Tran, Xuan-Thanh Bui, Huu Hao Ngo, Dinh Duc Nguyen,

Chapter 21 - Artificial intelligence for wastewater treatment,

Editors: Xuan-Thanh Bui, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Ashok Pandey,

Advances in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems,



Pages 587-608,

ISBN 9780323998741

This chapter advances SDG 6 and 9 by outlining state-of-the-art development in the use of applied AI for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with a focus on output, algorithms, data, and performance.

Wajid Umar, Muhammad Zia ur Rehman, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Ashar Ayub, Asif Naeem, Muhammad Rizwan, Husnain Zia, Rama Rao Karri,

Chapter 10 - Use of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment: potential applications, advantages, and limitations,

Editor(s): Janardhan Reddy Koduru, Rama Rao Karri, Nabisab Mujawar Mubarak, Erick R. Bandala,

In Micro and Nano Technologies,

Sustainable Nanotechnology for Environmental Remediation,



Pages 223-272,

ISBN 978012824547

This chapter contributes to SDG 6 by providing up-to-date information on microbial mechanisms for removing metals from contaiminated soils and water.

Sai Karthik Cheemalamarry, Vinayak Sharma, Yaddanapudi Varun, I. Sreedhar, Satyapaul A. Singh,

10 - Recent advances of nanotechnology in water remediation,

Editor(s): Noel Jacob Kaleekkal, Prasanna Kumar S. Mural, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran,

In Micro and Nano Technologies,

Nano-Enabled Technologies for Water Remediation,



Pages 311-333,

ISBN 9780323854450

This chapter contributes to SDG 6 by providing up-to-date information on nanomaterial potential application in water remediation.
The objective of this paper was to upport the development of an integrated water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and nutrition, social, and behavior change strategy aimed at reducing stunting, formative research was conducted in 2 program sites in western Kenya.
This chapter contributes to SDG 6 by introducing the impact of COVID-19 on water and sanitation, explaining Sustainable Development Goal-6 (clean water and sanitation) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlighting lessons learned regarding the water and COVID-19.
This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation and Goal 14: Life below water by aiming to critically review previous research on the presence of heavy metals, microplastics, and organic contaminants in urban waters and to synthesize the current knowledge of various urban water pollution sources.
Drinking water supply requires energy, which in turn emits greenhouse gases with undesirable climate impacts. Water conservation, therefore, offers environmental benefits by reducing such emissions. 

Water and Climate Change: Sustainable Development, Environmental and Policy Issues, Volume 1, 1 January 2022

This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation and Goal 14: Life below water by compiling and analyzing available data in the literature on the distribution of plastics/MPs in global oceans/seas and rivers and estimated riverine plastics outflows to global oceans.