Water and sanitation

Water and sanitation are pivotal elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), primarily encapsulated in SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). This goal seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. This objective directly addresses the current global water crisis, where nearly 2.2 billion people live without access to safe water, and about 4.2 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.

By focusing on improving water quality, increasing water-use efficiency, implementing integrated water resources management at all levels, and protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems, SDG 6 addresses not only direct human needs but also the broader ecological health of the planet. Furthermore, efforts towards achieving SDG 6 indirectly promote several other SDGs.

For instance, water and sanitation are crucial to achieving SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being), as clean water and proper sanitation facilities reduce the spread of water-borne diseases and significantly lower child and maternal mortality rates. Likewise, they are foundational to SDG 4 (Quality Education), given that the provision of water and sanitation facilities in schools significantly impacts the attendance and performance of students, particularly for girls.

SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) also intersects with water and sanitation, as sustainable and efficient water management is critical for agriculture, which remains the largest global water consumer. The necessity of water for food production and the potential impact of improved water management on crop yields and livestock health makes SDG 6 integral to achieving zero hunger.

SDG 6 contributes to SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) as well. Access to clean water and sanitation can enhance economic productivity by reducing time spent gathering water, reducing healthcare costs due to water-related diseases, and even creating jobs in water and sanitation services sectors.

In terms of environmental impact, the sustainable management of water resources is essential for SDG 13 (Climate Action), as water is a key factor in managing climate change due to its role in agriculture and energy production.

Background: WHO promotes the SAFE strategy for the elimination of trachoma as a public health programme, which promotes surgery for trichiasis (ie, the S component), antibiotics to clear the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma (the A component), facial cleanliness to prevent transmission of secretions (the F component), and environmental improvements to provide water for washing and sanitation facilities (the E component). However, little evidence is available from randomised trials to support the efficacy of interventions targeting the F and E components of the strategy.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 102, January 2022

This paper cautions that the adoption of electric vehicles with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions must balance that beneficial effect against increased water consumption. It recommends battery electric vehicles charged by solar energy as the best solution.
Both subterranean rivers and groundwater sources can offer considerable contributions towards potential summer cooling of London Underground stations, while also having significant environmental and economic advantages relative to alternative refrigeration techniques.
This Personal View supports SDGs 3 and 6 by suggesting a scale-specific approach in which agricultural water use is embedded in a larger systems approach to allow the design of effective incentives to change and optimise agricultural water use.
By analyzing the impact of both public water supply and water handling containers, this paper makes an important contribution to the literature regarding the effectiveness of water supply programs based on the following related outcomes: objective and subjective water quality at the source and Point-of-use (POU), POU water treatment, water transport and storage behavior, and uptake of new, improved water points.
An article focused on (i) understanding how climate change is decreasing ocean biodiversity and (ii) identifying the planetary health impacts accelerated by ocean biodiversity erosion.

Emerging Contaminants in the Environment: Challenges and Sustainable Practices, Volume 1, 1 January 2022

This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation and Goal 14: Life below water by prodiving an overview of environmental plastic abundance, sources and mitigation strategies.
This article examines whether seasonality and rainfall predict reported syndromes associated with leptospirosis, typhoid and dengue in Fiji.
The Budyko framework provides a reliable parameter-sparse representation of runoff changes, and reveals that terrestrial water cycle is changing substantially under climate change.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water pose a serious threat to human health due to their toxic effects. This manuscript evaluates various drinking water treatment processes to remove these compounds from drinking water, in order to assure the quality of water intended for human consumption.