Water and sanitation

Water and sanitation are pivotal elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), primarily encapsulated in SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). This goal seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. This objective directly addresses the current global water crisis, where nearly 2.2 billion people live without access to safe water, and about 4.2 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.

By focusing on improving water quality, increasing water-use efficiency, implementing integrated water resources management at all levels, and protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems, SDG 6 addresses not only direct human needs but also the broader ecological health of the planet. Furthermore, efforts towards achieving SDG 6 indirectly promote several other SDGs.

For instance, water and sanitation are crucial to achieving SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being), as clean water and proper sanitation facilities reduce the spread of water-borne diseases and significantly lower child and maternal mortality rates. Likewise, they are foundational to SDG 4 (Quality Education), given that the provision of water and sanitation facilities in schools significantly impacts the attendance and performance of students, particularly for girls.

SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) also intersects with water and sanitation, as sustainable and efficient water management is critical for agriculture, which remains the largest global water consumer. The necessity of water for food production and the potential impact of improved water management on crop yields and livestock health makes SDG 6 integral to achieving zero hunger.

SDG 6 contributes to SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) as well. Access to clean water and sanitation can enhance economic productivity by reducing time spent gathering water, reducing healthcare costs due to water-related diseases, and even creating jobs in water and sanitation services sectors.

In terms of environmental impact, the sustainable management of water resources is essential for SDG 13 (Climate Action), as water is a key factor in managing climate change due to its role in agriculture and energy production.

The authors conclude improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH activities) were successful in contributing to improved dietary diversity in women. Interventions aimed at enhancing the diet and nutritional status of women during and after pregnancy should include relevant WASH components as essential elements in multisector nutrition programming.
Elsevier, Digital Signal Processing: A Review Journal, Volume 123, 30 April 2022
With the continuous development of human society, people's over-exploitation of nature leads to frequent environmental problems. A large number of floating objects appear on lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other water surfaces. Water floats have seriously damaged the ecological environment and directly threatened the survival and development of human beings. Therefore, for the sustainable development of human beings, we must solve the problem of water pollution. The detection of floating pollutants on water surface is the primary goal of water resource management.

Journal of Integrative Agriculture, Volume 21, April 2022

Using agronomic experiment data from 62 studies between 1987 and 2021, we employ a meta-analysis to analyze the factors contributing to the heterogeneous effects of wastewater irrigation on crop yield.
Schematic of the pilot-scale IXR-EO treatment train and sampling locations.
This pilot-scale field demonstration evaluated the remediation of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from groundwater contaminated with aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) from a coupled regenerable ion exchange resin (IXR) and electrochemical oxidation (EO) treatment train. A pilot-scale IXR system was used that incorporates a novel resin regeneration process, and recovers and reuses the majority of the regenerant solution using distillation.
Elsevier, Chemical Engineering Journal Advances, Volume 9, 15 March 2022
Graphical abstract
Groundwater remediation technologies that can destroy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in situ are in high demand. To address this need, using flow-through electrochemical reactors we compared the performance of three mesh electrode materials that may be implemented in the subsurface as permeable reactive barriers.
World Water Day is on 22 March every year. This year’s theme is ‘groundwater’ and draws attention to the hidden water resource that has always been critically important but not fully recognized in sustainable development policymaking. To raise awareness on sustaining groundwater, Elsevier presents a curated list of publicly available journal articles and book chapters. At Elsevier, we are advancing #SDG6 research and ensuring that #groundwater is sustainably explored, analyzed, and monitored

Materials Today Advances, Volume 13, March 2022

In this review, the authors summarize the latest understanding on the detection, concentration, and evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater.
Figure showing WASH-GEM themes.
A right to clean water is one of the global SDGs and is especially important for women.
Background: A few studies have reported an increased risk of birth defects (BD) with maternal exposure to nitrate in drinking water. We examined this association in a large cohort study with well-characterized exposure. Methods: Danish singletons liveborn to Danish-born parents from 1991–2013 were identified using civil and patient registries (n=1,018,914). Exposure to nitrate was estimated using a spatial model based on national data linked with individual addresses. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using logistic regression.
Elsevier, IFAC Journal of Systems and Control, Volume 19, March 2022
The optimal control of a water reservoir system represents a challenging problem, due to uncertain hydrologic inputs and the need to adapt to changing environment and varying control objectives. In this work, we propose a real-time learning-based control strategy based on a hierarchical predictive control architecture.