Water and sanitation

Effective communication to citizens is of prime importance during public health crises involving water. This paper takes a sequential mixed method approach to the problem of communicating drinking water risks prevention of exposure to health risks in cities, related to SDG 6: clean water and sanitation.

Solar Energy Desalination Technology, Chapter 1, 2017, Pages 1–46

To advance goal 6 (clean water and sanitation), this chapter explores different desalination processes to make seawater drinkable, which is an obvious solution to any water shortages. Given the high-polluting energy required in the desalination process, solar-desalination technologies is considered.

Competition for Water Resources: Experiences and Management Approaches in the US and Europe, 2017, Pages 19-35

This book chapter addresses goals 6 and 12 by providing an overview of water resources in Europe and the associated anthropogenic and natural pressures. It further introduces the main instrument of the European Union (the Water Framework Directive) initiated as a response to the expected water crisis.

Climate Risk Management, Volume 16, 2017, Pages 59-72

As the climate continues to change, climate scientists have projected changes in water quantities available for human and other uses. This quantitative study examines how in the US, state water plans and state hazard mitigation plans address climate change. The primary objective of this study is to determine what drives states to plan for the impacts of a changing climate, addressing SDG 13 on climate action.
An agent-based model is created using data for household characteristics and outdoor water use to calculate water demands. This model represents utility response to water shortages to enact residential restrictions. The agent-based model is coupled with reservoir simulation for a case study, and results are compared to historic data. Sustainability of water policies is evaluated for climate scenarios created using a stochastic reconstruction framework. This is related to SDG 6.
Urban source separation infrastructure systems have a promising potential for a more sustainable management of household food waste and wastewaters. A renewed trend of larger implementations of pilot areas with such systems is currently emerging in Northern Europe. This study investigates the drivers behind the decision of stakeholders to implement source separation systems as well as the importance of the previously existing pilot areas in the decision-making process.

Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 28, 2017, Pages 435-449, ISSN 2210-6707,

Cities are strongly dependent on infrastructures providing essential services, namely Lifeline Systems (LS) that support societal functions, safety, economic prosperity and quality of life. The operation of LS in ordinary conditions as well as after disasters is crucial. The main aim of the paper is to define a System Dynamic Model (SDM) to assess the evolution of resilience of a drinking water supply system in case of natural disasters, with particular attention to the role of both ‘structural’ and ‘non-structural’ parameters drawing on the L’Aquila (Italy) earthquake as a case study.
An international review of stormwater regulation and practices, especially for low-exposure, landscape irrigation schemes in urban environments, was undertaken with a view to identifying what could be used in Alberta, Canada. A general lack of clear guidance and regulation to manage stormwater quality and potential public health risks was identified, which could be hindering the uptake of stormwater schemes generally.This related to SDG6 and SDG 11.

Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 28, 2017, Pages 450-452

Contributing to SDGs 6, 7 and 13, this paper discusses the CO2 footprint of California’s drought during 2012–2014. The authors show that California drought significantly increased CO2 emissions of the energy sector by around 22 million metric tons, indicating 33% increase in the annual CO2 emissions compared to pre-drought conditions. They argue that CO2 emission of climate extremes deserve more attention, because their cumulative impacts on CO2 emissions are staggering. Most countries, including the United States, do not have a comprehensive a nationwide energy-water plan to minimize their CO2 emissions, therefore the authors argue that developing a national water-energy plan under a changing climate should be prioritized in the coming years.

Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 28, January 2017, Pages 411-419

Urban water management via Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) has been successfully applied in cities worldwide. The economic feasibility of SuDS in London improves when considering wider benefits. The investment of stakeholder groups is broken down proportional to their benefits. A financial scheme was defined to facilitate SuDS uptake in London based on available incentives and private investment. This is a straightforward methodology that uses available tools and data, to improve SuDS feasibility in planning phases, related to SDG 6.