Water and sanitation

Water and sanitation are pivotal elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), primarily encapsulated in SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). This goal seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. This objective directly addresses the current global water crisis, where nearly 2.2 billion people live without access to safe water, and about 4.2 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.

By focusing on improving water quality, increasing water-use efficiency, implementing integrated water resources management at all levels, and protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems, SDG 6 addresses not only direct human needs but also the broader ecological health of the planet. Furthermore, efforts towards achieving SDG 6 indirectly promote several other SDGs.

For instance, water and sanitation are crucial to achieving SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being), as clean water and proper sanitation facilities reduce the spread of water-borne diseases and significantly lower child and maternal mortality rates. Likewise, they are foundational to SDG 4 (Quality Education), given that the provision of water and sanitation facilities in schools significantly impacts the attendance and performance of students, particularly for girls.

SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) also intersects with water and sanitation, as sustainable and efficient water management is critical for agriculture, which remains the largest global water consumer. The necessity of water for food production and the potential impact of improved water management on crop yields and livestock health makes SDG 6 integral to achieving zero hunger.

SDG 6 contributes to SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) as well. Access to clean water and sanitation can enhance economic productivity by reducing time spent gathering water, reducing healthcare costs due to water-related diseases, and even creating jobs in water and sanitation services sectors.

In terms of environmental impact, the sustainable management of water resources is essential for SDG 13 (Climate Action), as water is a key factor in managing climate change due to its role in agriculture and energy production.


Wajid Umar, Muhammad Zia ur Rehman, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Ashar Ayub, Asif Naeem, Muhammad Rizwan, Husnain Zia, Rama Rao Karri,

Chapter 10 - Use of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment: potential applications, advantages, and limitations,

Editor(s): Janardhan Reddy Koduru, Rama Rao Karri, Nabisab Mujawar Mubarak, Erick R. Bandala,

In Micro and Nano Technologies,

Sustainable Nanotechnology for Environmental Remediation,



Pages 223-272,

ISBN 978012824547

This chapter contributes to SDG 6 by providing up-to-date information on microbial mechanisms for removing metals from contaiminated soils and water.

Sai Karthik Cheemalamarry, Vinayak Sharma, Yaddanapudi Varun, I. Sreedhar, Satyapaul A. Singh,

10 - Recent advances of nanotechnology in water remediation,

Editor(s): Noel Jacob Kaleekkal, Prasanna Kumar S. Mural, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran,

In Micro and Nano Technologies,

Nano-Enabled Technologies for Water Remediation,



Pages 311-333,

ISBN 9780323854450

This chapter contributes to SDG 6 by providing up-to-date information on nanomaterial potential application in water remediation.
world toilet day

World Toilet Day 2023: Making Every Flush Count for Sustainable Development

On World Toilet Day 2023, which falls on 19 November, SDG Resources aims to cast a spotlight on an issue that many often overlook – sanitation. As odd as it might sound to some, toilets are more than just a basic amenity; they're a symbol of a society's progress and commitment to ensuring the well-being of its inhabitants.

A Brief Introduction to World Toilet Day 2023

The objective of this paper was to upport the development of an integrated water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and nutrition, social, and behavior change strategy aimed at reducing stunting, formative research was conducted in 2 program sites in western Kenya.
This chapter contributes to SDG 6 by introducing the impact of COVID-19 on water and sanitation, explaining Sustainable Development Goal-6 (clean water and sanitation) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlighting lessons learned regarding the water and COVID-19.
This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation and Goal 14: Life below water by aiming to critically review previous research on the presence of heavy metals, microplastics, and organic contaminants in urban waters and to synthesize the current knowledge of various urban water pollution sources.
Drinking water supply requires energy, which in turn emits greenhouse gases with undesirable climate impacts. Water conservation, therefore, offers environmental benefits by reducing such emissions. 

Water and Climate Change: Sustainable Development, Environmental and Policy Issues, Volume 1, 1 January 2022

This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation and Goal 14: Life below water by compiling and analyzing available data in the literature on the distribution of plastics/MPs in global oceans/seas and rivers and estimated riverine plastics outflows to global oceans.

Background: An alarming number of public health-care facilities in low-income and middle-income countries lack basic water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH), and waste management services. This study estimates the costs of achieving full coverage of basic WASH and waste services in existing public health facilities in the 46 UN designated least-developed countries (LDCs). Methods: In this modelling study, in-need facilities were quantified by combining published counts of public facilities with estimated basic WASH and waste service coverage.

This Article supports SDGs 3 and 6 by assessing the level of hand hygiene implementation and its drivers in health-care facilities through a global WHO survey; 25% of health-care facilities in low-income and middle-income countries were found to lack basic hygiene services, including access to clean water.