Water and sanitation

Water and sanitation are pivotal elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), primarily encapsulated in SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). This goal seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. This objective directly addresses the current global water crisis, where nearly 2.2 billion people live without access to safe water, and about 4.2 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.

By focusing on improving water quality, increasing water-use efficiency, implementing integrated water resources management at all levels, and protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems, SDG 6 addresses not only direct human needs but also the broader ecological health of the planet. Furthermore, efforts towards achieving SDG 6 indirectly promote several other SDGs.

For instance, water and sanitation are crucial to achieving SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being), as clean water and proper sanitation facilities reduce the spread of water-borne diseases and significantly lower child and maternal mortality rates. Likewise, they are foundational to SDG 4 (Quality Education), given that the provision of water and sanitation facilities in schools significantly impacts the attendance and performance of students, particularly for girls.

SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) also intersects with water and sanitation, as sustainable and efficient water management is critical for agriculture, which remains the largest global water consumer. The necessity of water for food production and the potential impact of improved water management on crop yields and livestock health makes SDG 6 integral to achieving zero hunger.

SDG 6 contributes to SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) as well. Access to clean water and sanitation can enhance economic productivity by reducing time spent gathering water, reducing healthcare costs due to water-related diseases, and even creating jobs in water and sanitation services sectors.

In terms of environmental impact, the sustainable management of water resources is essential for SDG 13 (Climate Action), as water is a key factor in managing climate change due to its role in agriculture and energy production.

Results of ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) pilot plant on-site tests for wastewater reclamation are reported here with 90% and 65% water recovery achieved for UF and RO stages, respectively. RO achieved high quality requirements for industrial reuse supporting SDG 6.
Nuclear desalination is an important non-electric application of nuclear power and heat, having strong interlinkages and alignment with sustainable development, climate change management (both mitigation and adaptation), and water security.
Elsevier,

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Volume 117, Part A, 2023, 105617

An examination of the challenges involved in water demand forecasting, with a particular focus on the impact of COVID-19 on the performance of various machine learning models designed for this purpose.
Clean water resources are crucial for societies in order to maintain safety as well as social, ecological and economic progress. As the population grows, agricultural, domestic and industrial activities produce large amounts of wastewaters that can be treated and reused in variety of purposes considering circular economy philosophy. This review presents the challenges and future prospects of wastewater treatment using membrane technologies and is related to SDG 6: Clean water and sanitation.
This chapter advances UN SDG goals 7 and 13 by critically evaluating the current status of waste-to-energy (WtE) processes to determine how best to move forward from a few successful WtE demonstrations to commercial-scale processes.
Elsevier,

Advances in Smart Nanomaterials and their Applications, Volume , 1 January 2023

This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation by discussing different strateties for the treatment of wastewater using a wide range of nanomaterials.
Elsevier,

Adsorption through Advanced Nanoscale Materials: Applications in Environmental Remediation, Volume , 1 January 2023

This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation by reviewing the role of nanostructured materials as a promising alternative to conventional methods and is effective in eliminating water and wastewater contaminants, such as inorganics (toxic metals), organics, and microorganisms.
Elsevier,

Renewable Energy - Volume 2: Wave, Geothermal, and Bioenergy Definitions, Developments, Applications, Case Studies, and Modelling and Simulation, Volume , 1 January 2023

This chapter aligns with SDGs 7 and 11, by describing the role and possibilities of wave energy to help support global (sustainable) energy systems.
Elsevier,

Remote Sensing in Precision Agriculture: Transforming Scientific Advancement into Innovation, Volume , 1 January 2023

This chapter aligns with SDGs 3 and 6, by providing applications of geospatial technologies to monitoring water quality.
Elsevier,

Adsorption through Advanced Nanoscale Materials: Applications in Environmental Remediation, Volume , 1 January 2023

This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation by reviewing the most effective uses of carbon nanotubes for water treatment.

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