Diversity and inclusion

A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people.
While we know that minority status differentiates the experience of aging, little research has been done to examine the ways in which patterns of successful aging may differ in diverse subgroups of older adults. In this exploratory study, we investigated and described experiences of successful aging in a sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Directed by a community-based participatory research process, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 22 LGBT adults, age 60 and older.
Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity-including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence-in explaining sexual orientation disparities in mental health among adolescents and young adults. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 3 (2001-2002), a nationally representative survey of adolescents.
Elsevier, Transport Policy, Volume 20, March 2012
The late 1990s and early 2000s witnessed a growing interest amongst UK academics and policy makers in the issue of transport disadvantage and, more innovatively, how this might relate to growing concerns about the social exclusion of low income groups and communities. Studies (predominantly in the United Kingdom) began to make more explicit the links policy between poverty, transport disadvantage, access to key services and economic and social exclusion (see for example Church and Frost, 2000; .
Adolescents with a minority sexual orientation (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) are more likely to use substances than their heterosexual peers. This study aimed to increase understanding of the development of drug use in this vulnerable population by: 1) comparing longitudinal patterns of past-year illicit drug use (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, and ecstasy) and misuse of prescription drugs among minority sexual orientation youth relative to heterosexual youth and, 2) examining how sexual orientation sub-group, gender, and age relate to variation in the risk of drug use.
Elsevier, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Volume 24, August 2009
Same-sex sexual behavior has been extensively documented in non-human animals. Here we review the contexts in which it has been studied, focusing on case studies that have tested both adaptive and non-adaptive explanations for the persistence of same-sex sexual behavior. Researchers have begun to make headway unraveling possible evolutionary origins of these behaviors and reasons for their maintenance in populations, and we advocate expanding these approaches to examine their role as agents of evolutionary change.
Elsevier,

Social Science Research, Volume 38, Issue 2, June 2009, Pages 338-351.

This article explores the role of religion and cultural context in shaping attitudes about homosexuality across the globe, developing SDG 10 (reduced inequalities).
Treatment of gender-identity disorders is guided by standards set forth by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH). Although not absolute, WPATH's eligibility criteria for hormone therapy and/or genital-reconstructive surgery include participation in psychotherapy. In addition, applicants for genital-reconstructive surgery are required to live at least one year full-time in the preferred gender role, a period referred to as the real-life experience (RLE).
To maximize potential, people must have lifelong access to the information and services offered through books and libraries. Whether to address concerns of an ageing population or to enable all citizens to contribute fully through meaningful education and work opportunities, more emphasis is being given to promoting library services to people who have disabilities. This chapter addresses SDG 4 as librarians, policy makers and constituents will gain an understanding of the importance of serving all potential patrons.
Elsevier,

Eating Behaviors, Volume 6, Issue 3, June 2005, Pages 179-187.

This research discovers gay men tend to be more dissatisfied with their bodies and may be at greater risk for symptoms of eating disorders compared to heterosexual men. This research directly contributes to SDG 3 (good health and well-being) and SDG 10 (reduced inequalities).

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