One of the most important consequences of climate change could be its effects on agriculture and subsequent global food availability. This modelling study is the first quantitative analysis of the global health implications of dietary and weight changes in view of climate change and agricultural production. It estimates the excess mortality attributable to agriculturally mediated changes by cause of death for 155 world regions in the year 2050. Authors warn that climate change mitigation will be key to preventing climate-related deaths through food insecurity and thereby demonstrating the linkages between SDG 3 and SDG 13.
The Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival initiative was launched in 2005 to monitor coverage of priority interventions to achieve the Millennium Development Goal for reduction of maternal and child mortality. In this Review, authors take stock of progress made over the past 15 years and highlight lessons that can be learned from the Countdown initiative to inform global monitoring and accountability in the era of the Sustainable Development Goals, with a focus on SDG 3.
Physical inactivity kills more than 5 million people every year through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. As such, design of urban environments has the potential to contribute substantially to physical activity. This article documents how attributes of the urban environment are related to physical activity in an international sample of adults. The findings add strength to previous calls for policy changes in the urban planning, transport, and parks and recreation sectors to reduce the health burden of the global physical inactivity pandemic, directly supporting SDG 11 target 7.
This commentary on the latest estimates and analyses from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 discusses how they provide a vital link between the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2016–30: reporting global and national trends in various health metrics, associating trends with national development measured through a Socio-demographic Index (SDI), and profiling epidemiological and health transitions across the world.
Food security is enshrined in SDG2 and is also a core component of the human development and capability paradigm, since food access and entitlements are critical for reinforcing essential human capabilities. This paper argues that agriculture is central to improving food security and reducing poverty in Africa, requiring rapid increases in land productivity and increases in agricultural yields. A science-based approach that integrates gender and sustainability is critical to design and implement policies that improve the availability of farm inputs and farm technology.
One of the SDG 3 targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt by 2025 the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. This article provides the most complete estimates of trends in adult diabetes prevalence worldwide, and predicts how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target and how changes in prevalence, population growth, and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global diabetes target is lower than 1% for men and is 1% for women worldwide.
This article provides the most complete picture of trends in adult body-mass index (BMI), including, for the first time, in underweight and severe and morbid obesity. In addition, authors calculate the probability of meeting the WHO target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels. The results are damning, with authors concluding that if post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. This raises questions for the SDG 3 target related to reducing mortality rates attributed to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease.
This brief article discusses why food procurement—the purchase, preparation, and serving of food in public institutions—is a promising strategy to improve the diet and nutritional health of vulnerable populations. With mounting evidence in high-income countries of the benefits of healthy-food procurement in tackling undernourishment, overnourishment, and chronic diseases associated with the latter such as type 2 diabetes, the challenge now is to translate the lessons learned to middle-income and low-income countries, thereby supporting the goals of SDGs 2, 3, and 12.
Nurses receive instruction in mobile nursing education in Kenya through Amref’s Jibu pilot. (Credit: Amref)
In order to achieve SDG target 3C, investments in the healthcare workforce is essential. New and innovative methods need to be deployed to train and develop the skills of healthcare workers. In Kenya, AMREF has launched a programme that enables nurses to learn on their mobile phones through a mobile nursing education app. Supported by a three-year grant from the Elsevier Foundation, Jibu (the name of the m-learning programme), offers a low-cost yet effective way for nurses to access up to date content.