Energy is a central component of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), explicitly reflected in SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy. However, the theme of energy cuts across multiple SDGs, demonstrating the interconnectivity of these global goals.

SDG 7's objective is to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. Energy, in its various forms, is a vital driver of economic growth and is pivotal to nearly all aspects of development. Without a steady and reliable supply of energy, societies can hardly progress. However, millions of people around the world still lack access to modern and clean energy services. The emphasis on "affordable and clean" energy within this goal shows the need to transition from traditional energy sources, often characterized by high environmental costs, to more sustainable ones like wind, solar, and hydropower.

Energy's role is also significant in achieving other SDGs. For example, SDG 9: Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure, emphasizes the need for sustainable and resilient infrastructure with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean technologies. It is almost impossible to achieve this without a sustainable energy framework. Similarly, SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities, calls for making cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable, and one of its targets (11.6) directly refers to the environmental impact of cities, for which energy is a key factor.

Furthermore, energy is a crucial player in SDG 13: Climate Action. The energy sector represents the largest single source of global greenhouse gas emissions. Transitioning to a sustainable energy future, therefore, is critical for tackling climate change. Efforts to reduce emissions and promote clean energy sources are crucial to mitigate climate change and its impacts.


3rd Generation Biofuels: Disruptive Technologies to Enable Commercial Production, Volume , 1 January 2022

This chapter advances the UN SDG goals 7, 11, and 12 by examining the current state-of-the art technologies applied for the extraction of compounds from microalgae/pretreatment and downstream processing for biofuels and chemicals from microalgae.
This chapter contributes to SDG goals 7, 11, and 13, by reviewing sustainable renewable energy policy and regulation, particularly in terms of climate change mitigation.

Biofuels and Biorefining: Volume 1: Current Technologies for Biomass Conversion, Volume , 1 January 2022

This chapter advances the UN SDG goals 7, 11, and 12 by discussing the current situation on the energetic and transportation sectors and ways to convert them to a biomass-based economy.
This chapter advances SDG goals 7 and 13 by highlighting future prospects for green energy production of hydrogen.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 102, January 2022

This paper cautions that the adoption of electric vehicles with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions must balance that beneficial effect against increased water consumption. It recommends battery electric vehicles charged by solar energy as the best solution.
This chapter advances Goals 7, 16, and 10 by applying an energy justice framework and some concepts from political ecology to identify the distribution of injustices in the lithium global production network. The authors argue that power asymmetries are significant and that more inclusive decision-making processes are needed for the transition to electro-mobility to be compatible with sustainable development and social justice.

Dincer, Exergy - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, 2021, Pages 61-89

This book chapter advances SDGs 7 and 9 by connecting exergy with three essential areas in terms of energy, environment and sustainable development.

By the year 2019, the number of people without access to electricity was 770 million, most of which lived in rural areas. The currently models for rural electrification are often limited in their electrical analysis, or focus on a idealistic optimal solution whilst ignoring the real hierarchical topology of power systems. This work proposes a rural electrification strategy that makes use of Geographic Information System (GIS), graph theory and terrain analysis to create the best electric network topology.

Graphical abstract showing how resources depend on income
Low-income households (LIHs) have experienced increased poverty and inaccess to healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic, limiting their ability to adhere to health-protective behaviors. We use an epidemiological model to show how a households' inability to adopt social distancing, owing to constraints in utility and healthcare expenditure, can drastically impact the course of disease outbreaks in five urban U.S. counties.
The article explores the advantages of eCooking, which include reduced health and environmental impacts, increased safety, and improved efficiency.