This paper examines the potential of energy saving in electrical consumption if the concept of energy-efficient house is implemented in Oman. Energy consumption in the residential sector in Oman was critically analysed and forecasted based on its growth rate and its historical consumption. Then, a base-case validated simulation model for a typical residential dwelling in different cities was generated using a dynamic building simulation software, covering a wide variation of climate conditions in Oman.
Elsevier, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 104, April 2019
The advent of more proactive consumers, the so-called “prosumers” with production and storage capabilities, is empowering the consumers and bringing new opportunities and challenges to the operation of power systems in a market environment. Recently, a novel proposal for the design and operation of electricity markets has emerged: these so-called peer-to-peer (P2P) electricity markets conceptually allow the prosumers to directly share their electrical energy and investment.
Pyrolysis converts biomass into liquid, gaseous and solid fuels. This work reviews the existing models for biomass pyrolysis, including kinetic, network and mechanistic models. The kinetic models are based on the global reaction mechanisms and have been extensively used for a wide range of biomass under various operating conditions. Major emphases have been on the network models as these models predict the structural changes during biomass pyrolysis. Key aspects of various network models include reaction schemes, structural characteristics and applications to CFD simulations.
Elsevier, Joule, Volume 3, 20 March 2019
Solar photovoltaic modules have suddenly emerged as one of the cheapest options for bulk electricity supply. In a recent Energy Policy article, Kavlak et al. (2018) describe a methodology for quantifying causes of such cost movements and apply it to photovoltaic modules. Their approach, however, overlooks the “butterfly effect” of serendipitously interacting people and events, without which photovoltaics likely would still be expensive.
With growing health risks from rising temperatures in the Global South, the lack of essential indoor cooling is increasingly seen as a dimension of energy poverty and human well-being. Air conditioning (AC) is expected to increase significantly with rising incomes, but it is likely that many who need AC will not have it. We estimate the current location and extent of populations potentially exposed to heat stress in the Global South.
N-type Mg3Sb2-based Zintl compounds have attracted considerable interest in recent years for their high thermoelectric performance. Mg3Sb2-based compounds inherently have p-type transport properties because of the presence of intrinsic Mg vacancies. Therefore, eliminating Mg vacancies and increasing the electron concentration are crucial for achieving high-performance n-type Mg3Sb2-based materials. The addition of excess Mg in the initial composition and the doping of chalcogens (Te, Se, and S) at the Sb site have been the primary methods used to date.
Elsevier, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 101, March 2019
Research into alternative renewable energy generation is a priority, due to the ever-increasing concern of climate change. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are one potential avenue to be explored, as a partial solution towards combating the over-reliance on fossil fuel based electricity. Limitations have slowed the advancement of MFC development, including low power generation, expensive electrode materials and the inability to scale up MFCs to industrially relevant capacities. However, utilisation of new advanced electrode-materials (i.e.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 15, February 2019
This mini-review succinctly describes the recent progresses in selective heterogeneous photocatalysis for the preparation of high value organics from lignocellulose-based waste as well as the perspective use of its fundamentals to develop a new concept of solar bio-refineries highlighting the challenges for the future and some needs to innovate.
Elsevier, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 100, February 2019
Blockchains or distributed ledgers are an emerging technology that has drawn considerable interest from energy supply firms, startups, technology developers, financial institutions, national governments and the academic community. Numerous sources coming from these backgrounds identify blockchains as having the potential to bring significant benefits and innovation. Blockchains promise transparent, tamper-proof and secure systems that can enable novel business solutions, especially when combined with smart contracts.
In the last decades, energy scarcity has become an important issue globally. Renewable energy sources have gained importance due to limited fossil fuel reserves and increased concerns on climate change. In this regard, municipal wastewater is a remarkable energy source since huge amounts of wastewater are generated and treated all over the world every day. Conventional activated sludge (CAS) process, which has been in use for more than a century, is the most widely applied treatment method for municipal wastewater.