Food security and nutrition and sustainable agriculture

Food security, nutrition, and sustainable agriculture constitute fundamental elements that contribute significantly to the attainment of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These goals are a globally shared blueprint that calls for peace and prosperity for all people and the planet. Focusing on food security and nutrition is directly linked to SDG 2 which seeks to "End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture." Beyond SDG 2, these themes also relate to other SDGs such as Goal 3 - Good Health and Well-being, Goal 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production, and Goal 13 - Climate Action. The relationship between sustainable agriculture and these goals is profound; by promoting eco-friendly farming methods, we reduce the environmental footprint, mitigate climate change, and ensure the long-term sustainability of food production systems.

Moreover, sustainable agriculture is vital in fostering biodiversity, improving soil health, and enhancing water use efficiency, which are critical aspects related to Goals 14 and 15 - Life below Water and Life on Land respectively. By safeguarding our ecosystems, we not only ensure food security but also the preservation of the natural environment for future generations. In turn, better nutrition is a conduit to improved health (SDG 3), and it can also influence educational outcomes (SDG 4), given the known links between nutrition and cognitive development.

Furthermore, it is worth noting that the interconnections go beyond these goals. There's an important nexus between sustainable agriculture, food security and issues of poverty (SDG 1), gender equality (SDG 5), clean water and sanitation (SDG 6), and economic growth (SDG 8), among others. Sustainable agriculture creates job opportunities, thus reducing poverty levels. By empowering women in agriculture, we can help achieve gender equality. Proper water and sanitation practices in agriculture can prevent contamination, ensuring clean water and sanitation for all. Therefore, the triad of food security, nutrition, and sustainable agriculture, while being a significant goal in itself, is also a vehicle that drives the achievement of the wider Sustainable Development Goals.

Several studies have indicated that a global reduction in meat consumption is inevitable for sustainability and public health, despite the challenges inherent to changing eating habits. The purpose of this article is to pursue a stock-take of consumer behavior with regard to reducing meat consumption through a literature review using bibliometric analysis. The findings show the multidisciplinary nature of the field, which is in full development and with many knowledge gaps. Publications are concentrated in a few dominant journals and originated exclusively in developed countries.
Food security and sustainability are the most urgent problems in worldwide. In the present study, the combinations of egg albumen, pea protein, and gellan gum were optimized to fabricate an artificial steak for specific populations. The relationships among the different components on the texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation, viscoelastic properties, and thermal behavior were conducted. 3D printing food was an emerging issue, this study also investigated how to fabricated an artificial steak and mitigate the impacts of meat production.
Cow's milk is considered a staple in many diets due to its high nutritional value. It contains almost every nutrient that the human body needs. Milk is consumed as a beverage, poured on several foods, and added to coffee, tea, and smoothies. Furthermore, many food products are produced from cow's milk, such as ice cream, yogurt, cheese, butter, cake, desserts, and others. However, it is not a suitable option for everyone for reasons, including lactose intolerance, milk allergy, dietary restrictions, and potential health risks.
The availability of food is the basic entity for the survival of human. The resources that make a nation food secured is guided by multiple factors and can be evaluated using a set of indicators. We present an assessment for ranking food security of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) nations represented by Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka using a set of indicators under the prevailing scenarios of climate change.

Meat induces large environmental impact while supplying important nutrients, and meat substitutes are increasingly adopted as direct replacers of meat products. This study assessed the environmental impact of a pork schnitzel and two soy-based schnitzels in terms of three different functional units to reflect the products’ functions as meal components and suppliers of high quality proteins. For a functional unit of 1 kg of product, the pork schnitzel induces the largest environmental impact for most environmental impact indicators.

Contamination of urban-garden vegetables with potentially toxic elements is a great problem in developing countries. This study assessed the level of PTEs (Cu, Pb, Cr and Cd) in market-sold vegetables in southwest Nigeria and evaluated the estimated daily intake (EDI) to understand the health implications.
Despite its significant adverse impacts on the environment, society, and economy, food waste is unavoidable around the world. The increase in population and income will worsen the situation and put more pressure on food security. 
Wheat is a major staple food in many diets worldwide. Authors identify a rapid and robust method for identifying fungi-infected damage to wheat crops, with the aim of reducing economic losses and hunger.
Plant-based meat substitutes are products used to replace meat in the human diet. These products have developed from traditional whole-grain meat substitutes to products based on an advanced technology called 2nd generation meat substitutes. Increased market visibility of 2nd generation products raised questions about the products´ healthiness once they are classified by NOVA as ultra-processed, are allegedly high in salt and saturated fat, and might not be nutritionally equivalent to meat.