The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is the difference between ecosystem CO2 assimilation and CO2 losses to the atmosphere. Ecosystem respiration (Reco), the efflux of CO2 from the ecosystem to the atmosphere, includes the soil-to-atmosphere carbon flux (i.e., soil respiration; Rsoil) and aboveground plant respiration. Therefore, Rsoil is a fraction of Reco and theoretically has to be smaller than Reco at daily, seasonal, and annual scales.
Stress experienced early in life (ES), in the form of childhood maltreatment, maternal neglect or trauma, enhances the risk for cognitive decline in later life. Several epidemiological studies have now shown that environmental and adult life style factors influence AD incidence or age-of-onset and early-life environmental conditions have attracted attention in this respect.
Elsevier, Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 8, February 2018
Stress is critically involved in the development and progression of disease. From the stress of undergoing treatments to facing your own mortality, the physiological processes that stress drives have a serious detrimental effect on the ability to heal, cope and maintain a positive quality of life. This is becoming increasingly clear in the case of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases involve the devastating loss of cognitive and motor function which is stressful in itself, but can also disrupt neural circuits that mediate stress responses.
Elsevier, Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 8, February 2018
Clinical studies indicate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both disease prevalence and severity, but the mechanisms underlying this sex divergence are unknown. Though some have suggested this difference in risk is a reflection of known differences in longevity between men and women, mounting clinical and preclinical evidence supports women also having intrinsic susceptibilities towards the disease. While a number of potential risk factors have been hypothesized to affect these differences in risks, none have been definitively verified.
Physical activity and stress are both environmental modifiers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Animal studies of physical activity in AD models have largely reported positive results, however benefits are not always observed in either cognitive or pathological outcomes and inconsistencies among findings remain. Studies using forced exercise may increase stress and mitigate some of the benefit of physical activity in AD models, while voluntary exercise regimens may not achieve optimal intensity to provide robust benefit.
This article ties to SDG 3. This review describes interventions of note that are delivered to refugee children and adolescents as well as parenting and school interventions, and broader socioeconomic and cultural interventions.
This book chapter addresses SDG 7 by explaining how geothermal energy can help fulfill energy transition needs and what the future holds for this energy source.

Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, Volume 32, February 2018

The CD research community, led by the CDCN, recently proposed 4 candidate etiologic drivers of iMCD pathogenesis: iMCD may be due to (A) self-reactive antibodies, (B) germline mutations in genes regulating inflammation, (C) acquired oncogenic mutations, o
This article ties to SDG 3. This clinical review article, published in Hematology/Oncology Clinics, presents current understanding of the pathogenesis for each subtype of CD as of 2017. Although understanding of CD has slowly improved over the last 6 decades, leading to improved patient survival and quality of life, additional research is needed. The authors anticipate significant progress to be made in the coming years through research studies led by the CDCN, including the ACCELERATE (Advancing Castleman Care with an Electronic Longitudinal registry, E-Repository, And Treatment/Effectiveness research) Natural History Registry (, which is open for patient self-enrollment.
The consumer and legislative demand to reduce plastic packaging supports goal 12 (responsible consumption and production). This report looks at the increasing demand for plastic packaging in-light of recent European legislation to reduce it.

Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, Volume 32, Issue 1, February 2018, Pages 11-21

This content links with Goal 3: Good health and well-being and Goal 10: Reduced Inequalities by providing a summary of current understanding of the cause, cell types, signaling pathways, and effector cytokines implicated in pathogenesis.