Food security and nutrition and sustainable agriculture

Food security, nutrition, and sustainable agriculture constitute fundamental elements that contribute significantly to the attainment of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These goals are a globally shared blueprint that calls for peace and prosperity for all people and the planet. Focusing on food security and nutrition is directly linked to SDG 2 which seeks to "End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture." Beyond SDG 2, these themes also relate to other SDGs such as Goal 3 - Good Health and Well-being, Goal 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production, and Goal 13 - Climate Action. The relationship between sustainable agriculture and these goals is profound; by promoting eco-friendly farming methods, we reduce the environmental footprint, mitigate climate change, and ensure the long-term sustainability of food production systems.

Moreover, sustainable agriculture is vital in fostering biodiversity, improving soil health, and enhancing water use efficiency, which are critical aspects related to Goals 14 and 15 - Life below Water and Life on Land respectively. By safeguarding our ecosystems, we not only ensure food security but also the preservation of the natural environment for future generations. In turn, better nutrition is a conduit to improved health (SDG 3), and it can also influence educational outcomes (SDG 4), given the known links between nutrition and cognitive development.

Furthermore, it is worth noting that the interconnections go beyond these goals. There's an important nexus between sustainable agriculture, food security and issues of poverty (SDG 1), gender equality (SDG 5), clean water and sanitation (SDG 6), and economic growth (SDG 8), among others. Sustainable agriculture creates job opportunities, thus reducing poverty levels. By empowering women in agriculture, we can help achieve gender equality. Proper water and sanitation practices in agriculture can prevent contamination, ensuring clean water and sanitation for all. Therefore, the triad of food security, nutrition, and sustainable agriculture, while being a significant goal in itself, is also a vehicle that drives the achievement of the wider Sustainable Development Goals.

Proteins serve as an imperative macronutrient in human nutrition and well-being. Their nutritional quality substantially varies with their digestibility, amino acid profile, bioavailability, processing and purity. From a nutritional viewpoint, the ideal integration of proteins from diverse plant sources can supply an adequate amount of essential amino acids to fulfil human health needs. The use of plant-derived proteins has recently gained momentum due to their multifaceted edible and nonedible applications and their biodegradable nature.

Fruits and vegetables are responsible for about 22% of food losses and wastes along the supply chain (not including the retail level). However, fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) may be transformed into fibre-rich flours and bioactive compounds, mainly bound to the fibre, thus bringing value to the food industry due to health benefits and technological functionality. Therefore, these by-products have great potential to be applied in several food industries.

This Personal View supports SDGs 3 and 6 by suggesting a scale-specific approach in which agricultural water use is embedded in a larger systems approach to allow the design of effective incentives to change and optimise agricultural water use.
An Article in support of SDGs 2 and 3, identifying the populations whose nutrient needs are most costly to meet, focusing on current food policies and systems
Authors measure nutrient content in coral reef fishes in Seychelles and show that reef fish are important sources of selenium and zinc and contain levels of calcium, iron, and omega-3 fatty acids comparable with other animal-source foods.
The present review highlights on the issues of hindrances in applicability of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) to the agricultural fields focusing on the mode of functions, maintaining soil and environmental sustainability; interactions with other biofertilizers and impact of various agrochemicals and agro-practices including tillage and crop rotation.
This review critically examines the current state-of-art on use of microbial strains as biofertilizers and the important roles performed by these beneficial microbes in maintaining soil fertility and enhancing crop productivity.
Higher dietary fiber intake is associated with improved specific components of cognitive function in older adults aged 60 years and older. 
We studied several sustainable alternative protein concentrates and a whey protein concentrate as reference, to determine their protein composition, digestibility and quality using the harmonized INFOGEST static protocol. The proteins concentrates were analyzed to determine their conversion factor, degree of hydrolysis, true ileal digestibility, in vitro digestible indispensable amino acid score (IVDIAAS) and total absorbable amino acids and total essential amino acids.
Ketogenic diets consist of low carbohydrate/high fat, shifting energy reliance from glucose to ketone bodies. Ketone diester supplement to a standard diet (ketone ester) increases ketone bodies by adding a substance without altering other consumed foods. We evaluated weight, glucose, and ketone concentrations in rats fed ketogenic diet and ketone ester feeds. We hypothesized that these feeds would increase ketones and decrease glucose and weight. We tested 16 male and 16 female Sprague Dawley rats randomly assigned to standard diet, ketogenic diet, or ketone ester for two weeks.

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