Sustainable cities and human settlements

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11 aims to "Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable." This goal acknowledges the growing importance of urban areas, as it's projected that by 2050, nearly 70% of the world's population will live in cities. Consequently, cities bear significant implications for sustainability, economic growth, and societal wellbeing.

Inclusivity is a key feature of sustainable cities. This refers to equitable access to opportunities, public services, and amenities, regardless of a person's background or circumstances. It implies the availability of affordable and adequate housing, thus addressing issues of homelessness and substandard living conditions.

Safety in cities means ensuring urban environments that protect their inhabitants from both physical harm and psychological distress. This involves addressing crime rates, traffic accidents, and potential hazards from poor infrastructure, while also considering the impacts of noise, pollution, and overcrowdedness on mental health.

Resilience is another important aspect, particularly in the face of climate change. Resilient cities can withstand and quickly recover from shocks such as natural disasters or economic crises. This involves aspects such as resilient infrastructure, disaster risk reduction strategies, and adaptive capacities at the community level.

Sustainability, finally, requires cities to function in a way that doesn't compromise future generations' ability to meet their own needs. This includes sustainable urban planning to reduce environmental impact, promote energy efficiency, and conserve resources. It also considers the importance of green spaces for biodiversity and the wellbeing of urban residents.

SDG 11 is interconnected with many other SDGs. For example, sustainable urban transport systems contribute to SDG 13 (Climate Action) by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Meanwhile, ensuring access to green and public spaces supports SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being).

Achieving sustainable cities and human settlements requires cooperation and participation from various stakeholders, including government authorities, urban planners, businesses, and citizens. Through their collective efforts, cities can be transformed into hubs of sustainability, resilience, and inclusivity, contributing significantly towards the realization of the SDGs.

Background: Housing quality is a crucial determinant of mental health. While the construction of high-rise buildings is a popular policy strategy for accommodating population growth in cities, there is considerable debate about the health consequences of living in poorly designed apartments. Drawing on three Australian state government apartment design policies introduced to improve apartment design quality, this study aimed to identify the combination of design requirements that were optimally supportive of positive mental health.
This study supports SDGs 9 and 15. The permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau has been significantly degraded becuase of global warming. This article assessed the future stability of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway.
The authors of this paper conclude that reducing Ultraprocessed Drink Consumption could lower environmental impact and all-cause mortality risk; however, this was not shown for Ultraprocessed Foods. When categorizing food consumption by their degree of processing, trade-offs are observed for human and planetary health aspects.
this RCT attempts to incentivise fruits and vegetables purchase in India where the sector is largetly unorganised.The authors find that even though unorganised, the retailers were willing to participate in such a scheme which could have a widespread effect on population consumption pattern.
This chapter advances UN SDG goals 11, 13, and 9 by examining how cities can transform in the face of climate change and socio-ecological crises to become more sustainable and resilient.
This chapter advances Goals 11 and 3 by discussing how a clean and pollution-free environment is a fundamental right protected under the Constitution of India, therefore India requires adopting legal provisions regarding sustainability and prevention measures for the improvement of the environment. The chapter shows how blockchain technology, combined with artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML) systems, and IoT for a green policing approach, can help to prevent green crime in order to preserve green justice, law, and order in India.
This chapter aligns with Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities by adressing methods and regulations for reducing pollution, waste management, traffic, resource utilization, and energy consumption, as well as assuring public safety, a good standard of life, environmental sustainability, and cost management.
Before we were agriculturalists we got all our food by hunting, gathering and fishing. But what did this look like?
This study investigates three Mediterranean coastal lagoons to study harmful algae and pathogens on plastic debris.
Earth Day is celebrated annually on April 22nd every year to demonstrate support for environmental protection. The theme for Earth day 2023 is Invest In Our Planet. Elsevier is proud to highlight these freely accessible book chapters and journal articles in honour of this event.