Oceans & Seas

Plastics entering the environment will persist and continue to degrade and fragment to smaller particles under the action of various environmental factors. These microplastics (MP) and nanoplastics (NP) are likely to pose a higher environmental impact, as well as they are more prone to adsorb organic contaminants and pathogens from the surrounding media, due to their higher surface area to volume ratio. Little known on their characteristics, fragmentation, distribution and impact on freshwater ecosystems.
Elsevier, Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Volume , 1 January 2019
The pollution of the marine environment by solid wastes, either directly introduced into the sea or discharged into the oceans from rivers or pipelines, is considered from the perspective of both their impacts and their regulation. The waste materials covered include dredged material, particulate wastes from sand/gravel extraction, and land reclamation, and industrial wastes including mining wastes, munitions, and plastics/litter.
Elsevier,

Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 34, October 2018, Pages 54-61.

There is a need to broaden the measures used to determine marine management effectiveness, especially in the context of achieving the SDGs. To advance goal 14, this article urges governments to pay more attention to new governance tools, including open innovation, when formulating new policy aimed at building future scenarios of economic resilience involving marine resource use.
This solution-focused report — the fourth in its series — offers 10 new markets which could help get the Global Goals back on track, such as blockchain-based land rights for Goal 10 and energy-efficient cooling for Goal 13. The report aims to demonstrate how global sustainability challenges and risks can be seen as opportunities.
Elsevier, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Volume 33, December 2018
Rapid ocean warming as a result of climate change poses a key risk for coral reefs. Even if the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement are achieved, coral reefs are likely to decline by 70–90% relative to their current abundance by midcentury. Although alarming, coral communities that survive will play a key role in the regeneration of reefs by mid-to-late century.
Elsevier, TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 109, December 2018
The Mediterranean Sea is affected by one of the most significant plastic pollution worldwide. This review critically evaluates the most recent literature on the presence of microplastics in sediments, suggested to be long term sinks and have a high potential to accumulate this kind of marine debris. A picture of microplastic levels in coastal environments is given, evidencing information gaps and considering also estuary, lagoons and areas influenced by the contribution of rivers. A wide range of contamination levels has been found, with the highest in lagoon and estuary environments.
Elsevier, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 136, November 2018
Increasing accessibility of coral reefs from the latter third of the 20th century led quickly to recognition of the vulnerability of coral reef communities to a combination of direct and indirect human impacts. Coral reefs are confronted by the stark threats of climate and ocean changes from the increasing number, intensity and forms of human use impacting global and marine systems. Management, particularly of accessible coral reefs, occurs in the context of multiple scale transboundary water column linkages of lifecycle processes and increasing human use of coastal and marine space.
Microplastics pollution in aquatic ecosystems has aroused increasing global concern, leading to an explosive growth of studies regarding microplastics published in the past few years. To date, there is still a lack of standardized methodologies used for the detection of microplastics within environmental samples, thus hampering comparison of the reported data.
OI 2018 logo - China
Supporting Goal 14: Life Below Water and advancing Target 14.a: to increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, OI China helps organisations to improve their strategies for measuring, developing, protecting and operating in the world’s oceans.
This study reports plastic debris pollution in the deep-sea based on the information from a recently developed database. The Global Oceanographic Data Center (GODAC) of the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) launched the Deep-sea Debris Database for public use in March 2017. The database archives photographs and videos of debris that have been collected since 1983 by deep-sea submersibles and remotely operated vehicles. From the 5010 dives in the database, 3425 man-made debris items were counted.

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