Oceans & Seas

Oceans and seas play a vital role in the context of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as they significantly contribute to the Earth's biosphere's health and the global economy. They are critical to sustaining life on earth, acting as a major source of food and oxygen while also serving as natural carbon sinks that mitigate climate change impacts. SDG 14, "Life Below Water," explicitly acknowledges the importance of conservation and the sustainable use of the world's oceans, seas, and marine resources.

Oceans absorb about 30% of carbon dioxide produced by humans, buffering the impacts of global warming. However, this process has implications such as ocean acidification, negatively impacting marine biodiversity and ecosystems. These impacts, coupled with unsustainable fishing practices and pollution, threaten the health of our oceans and seas. SDG 14 sets targets to prevent and reduce marine pollution of all kinds, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems, and regulate harvesting and end overfishing to restore fish stocks to sustainable levels.

Oceans also support economic wellbeing. Over three billion people depend on marine and coastal biodiversity for their livelihoods. By protecting oceanic ecosystems, the SDGs also support SDG 1, "No Poverty," and SDG 8, "Decent Work and Economic Growth." Furthermore, the oceanic routes are critical for global trade, supporting SDG 9, "Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure."

Furthermore, by implementing strategies for cleaner and more sustainable use of oceans and seas, it can also contribute to SDG 13, "Climate Action." For instance, developing and implementing new technologies to harness energy from waves and tides can promote renewable energy usage and reduce reliance on fossil fuels, aligning with SDG 7, "Affordable and Clean Energy."

This chapter aligns with Goal 14: Life Below Water and Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure by highlighting some of the many beneficial biocomposite applications of marine-derived byproducts.
This chapter aligns with Goal 14: Life Below Water and Goal 3: Good Health and Wellbeing by highlighting some of the many beneficial pharmaceutical applications of marine-derived compounds.
This chapter aligns with Goal 14: Life Below Water and Goal 9: Industry, innovation and infrastructure by describing the advancements in scientific data collection capabilities afforded by the innovation and use of oceanographic buoys.
This chapter aligns with Goal 14: Life Below Water and Goal 13: Climate Action by exploring the role of viruses in the marine carbon cycle and describing how advances in marine virus research can improve marine ecosystem models and predictions of the future of marine carbon cycling.
This chapter aligns with Goal 14: Life Below Water and Goal 13: Climate Action by exploring the potential of marine renewables, including wind, wave, and solar, for providing long-term sustainable energy sources.
An article focused on (i) understanding how climate change is decreasing ocean biodiversity and (ii) identifying the planetary health impacts accelerated by ocean biodiversity erosion.
Authors measure nutrient content in coral reef fishes in Seychelles and show that reef fish are important sources of selenium and zinc and contain levels of calcium, iron, and omega-3 fatty acids comparable with other animal-source foods.
Elsevier,

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics, Volume 40, December 2021

Farmed fish are commonly exposed to stress in intensive aquaculture systems, often leading to immune impairment and increased susceptibility to disease. Effects of two aquaculture-relevant early-life stressors on the gut and skin microbiome of Atlantic salmon fry (four months post hatching) using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were studied.
In order to address the impacts of climate change, this manuscript presents a strategy developed to create a central resource, database and web-based platform to integrate data and information on the drivers and the changes within Guyana coastal and marine environment.

COP26 is the 2021 United Nations annual climate change conference. COP stands for Conference of the Parties. Parties are the signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - a treaty agreed in 1994 which has 197 Parties (196 countries and the EU). The 2021 conference, hosted by the UK, together with our partners Italy, in Glasgow, will be the 26th meeting of the Parties, which is why it's called COP26.

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