Science

Provision of clean water is one of the most important issues worldwide because of continuing economic development and the steady increase in the global population. However, clean water resources are decreasing everyday, because of contamination with various pollutants including organic chemicals. Pharmaceutical and personal care products, herbicides/pesticides, dyes, phenolics, and aromatics (from sources such as spilled oil) are typical organics that should be removed from water.
Research, development and commercialisation are three important stages in pharmaceuticals and to advancing goal 3. This chapter explores the role of biophysical characterisation in this process.
World Bank
This report, a partnership between Elsevier and the World Bank, examines and compares the research enterprise of sub-Saharan Africa from 2003 and 2013, with a special emphasis on research in STEM. This analysis provides valuable insights that help to advance SDG 4 Quality education and SDG 10 Reduced inequalities.
This article describes the key challenges and opportunities in modeling and optimization of biomass-to-bioenergy supply chains. It reviews the major energy pathways from terrestrial and aquatic biomass to bioenergy/biofuel products as well as power and heat with an emphasis on "drop-in" liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Key components of the bioenergy supply chains are then presented, along with a comprehensive overview and classification of the existing contributions on biofuel/bioenergy supply chain optimization.
Vaccine "hesitancy" is an emerging term in the literature and discourse on vaccine decision-making and determinants of vaccine acceptance.
This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems.
Background: A third of the 2·5 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation live in India, as do two-thirds of the 1·1 billion practising open defecation and a quarter of the 1·5 million who die annually from diarrhoeal diseases. We aimed to assess the eff ectiveness of a rural sanitation intervention, within the context of the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign, to prevent diarrhoea, soil-transmitted helminth infection, and child malnutrition.
Elsevier, Energy Research and Social Science, Volume 1, March 2014
Energy is central to the survival and prosperity of human society, which explains the social sciences' interest in energy production, consumption and distribution. The emergence of the global environmental agenda in the second half of the 20th century gave rise to a distinctive research literature on how energy systems and global environmental protection are interconnected. The threat of disruptive climate change, in particular, has thrown the spotlight on the central role that energy plays in shaping the future relationship between human society and its natural environment.
Recent research and professional interest in planning for sustainable and resilient cities emphasizes the assessment of a broad spectrum of urban ecosystem services. While such assessments are useful to establish specific benchmarks, and for measuring progress toward sustainability and resilience goals, they do not motivate, or support the innovations required to provide specific ecosystem services as an intentional part of routine urban and infrastructure development activity by municipalities and professionals.
A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments.

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