Sustainable cities and human settlements

This book chapter advances SDGs 7, 11, and 13 by offering a promising alternative energy source. It reviews polymer-based solar cells, which are are light, flexible, affordable, sustainable, and now boast improved performance.
World Future Energy Summit is the world’s leading business event for future energy and sustainability, showcasing pioneering technologies and ground-breaking thinking in energy, energy efficiency, water, solar, waste, smart cities, climate and the environment. As a global hub for business, innovation and knowledge exchange, World Future Energy Summit inspires the advancement and transfer of ideas, technology and investment across borders and between the public and private sectors worldwide, helping stimulate sustainable growth for all.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 8, December 2017
From waste to wealth using green chemistry: The way to long term stability
Waste is an extremely valuable resource that we have been accumulating over a long period. Interesting and viable organic “waste-to-resource” opportunities include plastics and food supply chain wastes. Their use as chemical feedstocks will fit well with a circular economy model. Plastics is a major waste opportunity: worldwide we only recycle a few % of the plastic we use, yet plastic manufacturing consumes some 10% of all the oil we consume, and much of it causes serious environmental damage through negligent release.
The replacement of the fossil resources historically employed for chemicals’ production is of major scientific interest the last decades, as a result of the environmental issues arisen and the price versatility of petroleum. Biotechnological routes present promising alternatives for the production of various platform chemicals such as succinic, lactic and muconic acids among others. The utilisation of agricultural and agro-industrial waste and by-product streams would not only reduce the overall production cost but also it would assist towards the direction of the bio-economy era.
Global sustainability problems pose serious challenges for humanity. In handling these problems education for sustainable development (ESD) is seen as important. Different key competences that ESD should focus on have been introduced, such as the ability to deal with future dimensions. Still, studies indicate that future dimensions are not always included in ESD and that many young people are pessimistic concerning the global future. Therefore, one could argue that a focus on anticipatory emotions, especially hope, should be included in ESD.
Elsevier, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 140, November 2017
The tremendous increase in allergy in the African continent cannot simply be explained by the change in public hygiene. There are many “prehygiene” communities with sewage-contaminated water supplies, helminth infestations, bare footedness, and poor housing, and still there is a high prevalence of allergic disease. Africans can be exposed to many risk factors facilitating severe asthma and wheezing, including airborne viruses, smoke, indoor dampness, cockroaches, and poor access to health care.
A Global Outlook on Disaster Report 2017
Despite loss of life and economic devastation worldwide due to increasingly frequent natural and man-made disasters, scientific research on disasters represents a small percentage of scholarly output. Furthermore, countries with the highest death tolls from disasters tend to be low-income countries and have low-levels of scholarly output overall and in disaster science; countries with higher research output overall, as well as in disaster science, tend to be high-income countries and sustain the greatest economic losses from disasters. This report advances SDG 11 target 5, which is specifically concerned with disaster risk reduction.
Urban areas account for 70% of carbon emissions, and are likely to be the locus of attention to reduce future emissions in developing countries. However, only a small share of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects under the Kyoto Protocol and only 30% of public climate finance is invested in urban areas. One of the main reasons is that most urban climate change mitigation projects rather provide development than climate benefits, so the question is whether alternative mechanisms can mobilize urban mitigation projects.
This chapter advances SDGs 3 and 11 by addressing the challenges of promoting personal and population health from the different vantage points of biomedical, biopsychosocial, and social ecological models.
This chapter advances SDGs 3 and 11 by identifying strategies for improving the design and sustainability of built environments. Resilience and sustainability are viewed at different scales as they apply to buildings, neighborhoods, communities, regional, and global ecosystems.

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