Sustainable cities and human settlements

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11 aims to "Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable." This goal acknowledges the growing importance of urban areas, as it's projected that by 2050, nearly 70% of the world's population will live in cities. Consequently, cities bear significant implications for sustainability, economic growth, and societal wellbeing.

Inclusivity is a key feature of sustainable cities. This refers to equitable access to opportunities, public services, and amenities, regardless of a person's background or circumstances. It implies the availability of affordable and adequate housing, thus addressing issues of homelessness and substandard living conditions.

Safety in cities means ensuring urban environments that protect their inhabitants from both physical harm and psychological distress. This involves addressing crime rates, traffic accidents, and potential hazards from poor infrastructure, while also considering the impacts of noise, pollution, and overcrowdedness on mental health.

Resilience is another important aspect, particularly in the face of climate change. Resilient cities can withstand and quickly recover from shocks such as natural disasters or economic crises. This involves aspects such as resilient infrastructure, disaster risk reduction strategies, and adaptive capacities at the community level.

Sustainability, finally, requires cities to function in a way that doesn't compromise future generations' ability to meet their own needs. This includes sustainable urban planning to reduce environmental impact, promote energy efficiency, and conserve resources. It also considers the importance of green spaces for biodiversity and the wellbeing of urban residents.

SDG 11 is interconnected with many other SDGs. For example, sustainable urban transport systems contribute to SDG 13 (Climate Action) by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Meanwhile, ensuring access to green and public spaces supports SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being).

Achieving sustainable cities and human settlements requires cooperation and participation from various stakeholders, including government authorities, urban planners, businesses, and citizens. Through their collective efforts, cities can be transformed into hubs of sustainability, resilience, and inclusivity, contributing significantly towards the realization of the SDGs.

Solar power is a renewable energy source. An increase in solar power can see a pivot from coal-fired power, a major source of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Global Citizen campaigns on the United Nations’ Global Goals, including goal 7 for affordable and clean energy and goal 13 for climate action. The Global Goals specifically call on all nations to invest in sustainability and renewable power.
Landscape fragmentation and farming can affect the diversity of plants and pollinators harbored by linear landscape elements (LLE) in agroecosystems. To assess the role of these habitats in sustaining plant-pollinator communities, twenty portions of LLE (road verges) were studied during two consecutive field seasons in the Argentine Pampas.

Urbanisation is increasing in many countries, leading to the establishment of 33 megacities, representing huge water demand which is increasingly difficult to supply, exemplified by the recently avoided Day Zero event in Cape Town (2018) and the ongoing water crisis in Chennai, India. The ongoing growth of megacities could lead to the potential for further Day Zero events in countries ill-equipped to deal with such a situation. This study analyses the water supply and demand situations in 12 megacities hosting 194 million people.

Elsevier,

Enhancing Disaster Preparedness, From Humanitarian Architecture to Community Resilience, 2021, Pages 209-222

This chapter supports SDGs 10 and 16 by looking into proposals for policy change regarding the management of legal, socioeconomic, and urban aspects of the Syrian refugee crisis.
This chapter addresses SDG 10 and SDG 11 by examining social vulnerability and inequality globally and how that impacts the response to disasters.
Climate change requires joint actions between government and local actors. Understanding the perception of people and communities is critical for designing climate change adaptation strategies. Those most affected by climate change are populations in coastal regions that face extreme weather events and sea-level increases. In this article, geospatial perception of climate change is identified, and the research parameters are quantified.
This paper summarized China's integrated actions (2015 onwards) that benefit both climate change mitigation and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
This book chapter advances SDG10 and 16 by investigating practices for disaster response that take indigenous communities into account--something that is often ignored or even actively opposed.
Elsevier, Journal of Transport and Health, Volume 18, September 2020
Introduction: Transport, a well-recognised determinant of health, is particularly salient to well-being and equitable health outcomes amongst older people and people living with disabilities living in low-and middle-income countries. This study explored the facilitators and barriers for safe and accessible transportation from the perspectives of older people and those living with disabilities in Sri Lanka.
On Monday 24 August 2020 – at the beginning of World Water Week - RELX announced the winners of the 2020 RELX Environmental Challenge. Now in its 10th year, the RELX Environmental Challenge supports innovative solutions that improve sustainable access to safe water and sanitation where it is at risk, contributing to SDGs 1, 3, 6 and 10.

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