Water and sanitation

Water and sanitation are pivotal elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), primarily encapsulated in SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). This goal seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. This objective directly addresses the current global water crisis, where nearly 2.2 billion people live without access to safe water, and about 4.2 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.

By focusing on improving water quality, increasing water-use efficiency, implementing integrated water resources management at all levels, and protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems, SDG 6 addresses not only direct human needs but also the broader ecological health of the planet. Furthermore, efforts towards achieving SDG 6 indirectly promote several other SDGs.

For instance, water and sanitation are crucial to achieving SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being), as clean water and proper sanitation facilities reduce the spread of water-borne diseases and significantly lower child and maternal mortality rates. Likewise, they are foundational to SDG 4 (Quality Education), given that the provision of water and sanitation facilities in schools significantly impacts the attendance and performance of students, particularly for girls.

SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) also intersects with water and sanitation, as sustainable and efficient water management is critical for agriculture, which remains the largest global water consumer. The necessity of water for food production and the potential impact of improved water management on crop yields and livestock health makes SDG 6 integral to achieving zero hunger.

SDG 6 contributes to SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) as well. Access to clean water and sanitation can enhance economic productivity by reducing time spent gathering water, reducing healthcare costs due to water-related diseases, and even creating jobs in water and sanitation services sectors.

In terms of environmental impact, the sustainable management of water resources is essential for SDG 13 (Climate Action), as water is a key factor in managing climate change due to its role in agriculture and energy production.

This article supports SDG's 3, 6, and 11 by illustrating the reduction of pollutants using various microbial techniques. Strategy and recommendations are summarized, along with the future prospects.
This paper highlights the alarming rate of which levels of chemicals are being found in seawater.
This chapter contributes to SDG 6 by introducing projects to improve the situation of drought-affected cities by maintaining and saving local water resources.
This article supports SDG 6, 3, 9 by exploring the diversity and ecology of freshwater diatom as bioindicators of 6 major freshwater ponds of Kanyakumari district, Tamilnadu
This content aligns with SDG Goal 6 and SDG Goal 14 by evaluating river pollution using AI to estimate dispersion coefficient.
This content aligns with SDG Goal 6 and SDG Goal 14 by providing a detailed review on the role of GIS and remote sensing for monitoring the quality of water and management and water body remediation.

Food Process Engineering Principles and Data, 2022, pp 425-432

This chapter aligns with Goal 3: Good Health and Wellbeing and Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation by exploring the role of the food industry as a major consumer of water and energy.
This Article supports SDG 6, focusing on the variation in water insecurity between different sociodemographic groups in low-income and middle-income countries. The authors suggest that indiviudal-level measurements are needed to guide policy interventions that will serve those most in need.
This Comment article supports SDGs 3, 6, and 13 by highlighting that Africa has suffered disproportionately from the climate crisis; extreme weather such as severe flooding has damaged the water and food supply, increased food insecurity and malnutrition, and led to loss of cultivated land, shelter, and livestock.

Shunlin Liang and Jindi Wang; Advanced Remote Sensing (Second Edition), 2020, Pages 765-787

This chapter contributes to SDG 6 and 9 by providing satellite techniques to monitor water storage in the Earth's cycle.