Water and sanitation

Water and sanitation are pivotal elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), primarily encapsulated in SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). This goal seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. This objective directly addresses the current global water crisis, where nearly 2.2 billion people live without access to safe water, and about 4.2 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.

By focusing on improving water quality, increasing water-use efficiency, implementing integrated water resources management at all levels, and protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems, SDG 6 addresses not only direct human needs but also the broader ecological health of the planet. Furthermore, efforts towards achieving SDG 6 indirectly promote several other SDGs.

For instance, water and sanitation are crucial to achieving SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being), as clean water and proper sanitation facilities reduce the spread of water-borne diseases and significantly lower child and maternal mortality rates. Likewise, they are foundational to SDG 4 (Quality Education), given that the provision of water and sanitation facilities in schools significantly impacts the attendance and performance of students, particularly for girls.

SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) also intersects with water and sanitation, as sustainable and efficient water management is critical for agriculture, which remains the largest global water consumer. The necessity of water for food production and the potential impact of improved water management on crop yields and livestock health makes SDG 6 integral to achieving zero hunger.

SDG 6 contributes to SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) as well. Access to clean water and sanitation can enhance economic productivity by reducing time spent gathering water, reducing healthcare costs due to water-related diseases, and even creating jobs in water and sanitation services sectors.

In terms of environmental impact, the sustainable management of water resources is essential for SDG 13 (Climate Action), as water is a key factor in managing climate change due to its role in agriculture and energy production.


Gouri Sankar Bhunia, Pravat Kumar Shit, Soumen Brahma; Case Studies in Geospatial Applications to Groundwater Resources, 2023, Pages 371-385

This chapter contributes to SDG 6 by using satellite-based information to monitor and forecast for sustainable water resource management.
This Article supports SDGs 3 and 6 by demonstrating that polio environmental surveillance by testing wastewater samples is a valuable tool for tracking the distribution of polio and non-polio enteroviruses, and could be instrumental for global poliovirus elimination efforts.
Investigation on the water quality
Ultrafiltration with ceramic membranes of olive oil washing wastewater has been demonstrated to be an interesting alternative as a previous step for the recovery of phenolic compounds, which have outstanding antioxidant characteristics. In this way, the treatment of these wastewaters should be based on reusing water and, at the same time, on recovering valuable compounds.
This study aims to analyse catastrophic floods and severe droughts affected by climate change from paleo studies to studies that focus on future projections.
This Article supports SDGs 3 and 6 by demonstrating the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a typhoid conjugate vaccine in Malawian children aged 9 months to 12 years; this paper is relevant to World Water Day since S Typhi is transmitted by the faecal-oral route through ingestion of contaminated food and water, often resulting from inadequate hygiene and sanitation.
This chapter contributes to SDG 6 by investigating Iran's water crisis caused by the depletion of water resources and providing technological solutions to adapt to the crisis and achieve a water resources equilibrium.

Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Microplastics and Nanoplastics: Occurrence, Environmental Impacts and Treatment Processes, 2023, Pages 387-403

This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation, Goal 13: Climate action, and Goal 14: Life below water by providing an overview of the state of knowledge of interactions between climate change and MPs/NPs.

The Lancet Global Health, Volume 10, August 2022

This Comment article supports SDGs 3, 6, and 10 by highlighting major disparities in the coverage and quality of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services for minority ethnic groups in Bangladesh.
Community Care,

uan Cuong Nguyen, Thi Thanh Huyen Nguyen, Quoc Ba Tran, Xuan-Thanh Bui, Huu Hao Ngo, Dinh Duc Nguyen,

Chapter 21 - Artificial intelligence for wastewater treatment,

Editors: Xuan-Thanh Bui, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Ashok Pandey,

Advances in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems,



Pages 587-608,

ISBN 9780323998741

This chapter advances SDG 6 and 9 by outlining state-of-the-art development in the use of applied AI for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with a focus on output, algorithms, data, and performance.