Materials and the Environment, Third Edition: Chapter 11 - Renewable materials, natural materials, Volume , 2021

This book chapter advances SDGs 9 and 12 by exploring whether renewable materials, derived wholly or in part from nature, can play a larger role in the engineering economy of the 21st century.
Background and Purpose: Altered cholesterol metabolism is associated with increased risk of neurodegeneration and in particular with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigate whether non-cholesterol sterols and oxysterols in the central nervous system are associated with (i) the presence of cerebral AD pathology, (ii) distinct aspects of AD pathology, i.e. amyloid pathology, neuronal injury, and tau pathology, and (iii) cognitive decline over time.
Women represent ⅔ of the cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current research has focused on differential risks to explain higher rates of AD in women. However, factors that reduce risk for AD, like cognitive/brain reserve, are less well explored. We asked: what is known about sex and gender differences in how reserve mitigates risk for AD?
The enormous social and economic cost of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has driven a number of neuroimaging investigations for early detection and diagnosis. Towards this end, various computational approaches have been applied to longitudinal imaging data in subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), as serial brain imaging could increase sensitivity for detecting changes from baseline, and potentially serve as a diagnostic biomarker for AD. However, current state-of-the-art brain imaging diagnostic methods have limited utility in clinical practice due to the lack of robust predictive power.
Building and Environment will host a series of free webinars on COVID-19 Control, with the first webinar featuring 2 presentations from experts in the field: 1. Risk of Airborne COVID-19 Virus Transmissions in Airliner Cabins, presented by Qingyan “Yan” Chen, James G. Dwyer Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, USA 2. Mitigating COVID-19 at Public Spaces, presented by John Zhai, Professor of Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder and Keith Trace, Senior Director, Global Operations Services, Engineering and Facilities Management, Marriott International
This paper provides an overview of nutrition recommendations for dietary intakes necessary to support normal growth and development of children from birth to 18 years and to promote long-term health and quality of life. Key nutrients and food-based dietary recommendations have been examined from international evidence-based child dietary and feeding guidelines from the World Health Organization and a convenience sample of countries. The paper also reviews key issues relating to the environmental impacts of child diets.
Healthcare-associated infections cause a massive burden for the health care system and the patients. Although the standard sterilization protocol with saturated steam (>121°C and >205 kPa) is effective, generating high-temperature and high-pressure steam is challenging without reliable access to electricity or fuel. While abundant solar energy is readily available, utilizing sunlight to generate steam beyond 100°C requires costly and bulky optomechanical components. In this work, we developed a stationary solar thermal device capable of providing the required saturated steam.
This chapter advances SDG 6, 12, and 13 by explaining the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and GRACE Follow On (GRACE-FO) missions that have greatly benefitted the modeling and monitoring of groundwater storage changes and drought at the global scale. In this chapter, we first review environmental controls on the temporal variability of groundwater using in situ data. We then describe an approach that infuses GRACE and GRACE-FO observations into a land surface model for assessing groundwater storage changes and drought globally.
This chapter advances SDG 6, 12, and 13 by examining the emergence of water sustainability aspects in recent virtual water trade (VWT) literature, highlights the recent advances and remaining issues in evaluating the water sustainability of agriculture globally, and makes recommendations for future scientific research and societal change: consider groundwater both at the local scale and at the global scale; improve our understanding of groundwater storage and dynamics with new models and data; and raise the profile of groundwater sustainability in governance frameworks to eventually end environmental damages of groundwater exploitation.