New HIV diagnoses among people aged 50 years or older in the EU & EEA
SDG 3 target 3 is concerned with ending the AIDS epidemic. Between 2004 and 2015 there were 54 102 new cases of HIV infection in older adults (aged ≥50 years) reported in the 31 countries of the European Economic Area (EEA). In comparison with younger adults this age group were more likely to present late and to have acquired the infection via heterosexual contact. The notification rate of new infections increased in older adults over the time period studied, which highlights the need for increased education and targeted prevention strategies for this population.
To advance goals 3 and 8, this article explores the causality between mental illness and long-term sickness absence. In a randomized clinical trial, a 4-h training programme for managers reduced sickness absence among employees in the Australian fire and rescue service at 6 months after the intervention. The training was highly cost effective and should be tested in other populations.

Kidney International Supplements, Volume 7, Issue 2, 2017, Pages 71-87

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global public health concern and an important contributor to morbidity and mortality. In support of SDG 3, this review expands on the recently published International Society of Nephrology (ISN) CKD roadmap, which discusses the globally relevant major traditional and nontraditional CKD risk factors, highlights gaps in knowledge, and recommends strategies to close these gaps and enhance CKD prevention.

The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Volume 2, No. 10, p707–715, October 2017

Infection with H pylori significantly increases an individual's chances of developing gastric cancer. SDG 3.4 aims to prevent non-communicable diseases such as cancer; this study provides policymakers with the evidence to decide optimal first-line H pylori eradication regimens according to local prevalence of primary antibiotic resistance and develop effective strategies to control the rising antibiotic resistance in their countries.
This study evaluated the outcomes of a community-based distribution program that provides migrant, refugee, and cross-border women from Burma with evidence-based information about and access to misoprostol for early pregnancy termination. The documented outcomes from this initiative may be valuable for those working to reduce harm from unsafe abortion in other legally restricted, low-resource, and/or conflict-affected settings and help to advance SDG 3.
Addressing hunger and malnutrition (goal 2) is key to advancing goal 3. This review and meta-analysis provides national, regional, and global estimates of lactose malabsorption, which can guide identification of likely causes of gastrointestinal symptoms and their optimal management, and also guide policy—eg, when choosing food for provision during famine outbreaks.
How can innovations in chemistry, energy, and biotechnology jointly be applied in low-resource settings for the benefit of a community? This LabLinks meeting combines the expertise in the applied biosciences of Trends in Biotechnology, Joule’s interest in both scientific and sustainability developments in energy, and Chem’s focus on basic chemical science with relevance to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
Gender differences in child development have been extensively studied in high-income countries, but few data are available from low-income and middle-income countries. In this study of six countries across the Asia-Pacific region, researchers address this research gap, and find that girls aged 3–5 years outperform boys in developmental tests. The development of girls is anticipated to provide greater opportunities for economic development and will be key to achieving SDG 5.

Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 6, 2017, Pages 209-227

Urban transport is associated with a large burden of global disease and premature mortality. These impacts are preventable by changing current urban transport planning and policy. Cities now have access to an increasingly wide range of transport policy measures whose health impacts are unclear. Highlighting the synergies between SDG 3 and SDG 11, this paper provides an overview of 64 different transport policy measures indexed in KonSULT and an indication of their expected health impacts.
West Africa has the highest proportion of married adolescents, and the highest adolescent childbearing rate and maternal death rate in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from 19 211 women across 13 west African countries, this survey-based study reports that while many adolescents use some antenatal care for their first birth, they seek care later, make fewer visits during pregnancy, and receive less comprehensive care than older first-time mothers.