The Lancet, Volume 389, Issue 10070, 675–677

A study by Hong Chen and colleagues concludes that living close to heavy traffic is associated with a higher incidence of dementia. The research covered almost the entire adult population in Ontario, Canada with a lagged exposure of 10 years, statistically assessing the associations between traffic road proximity and incident dementia, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. This study helps to advance SDG 3 and in particular advancing knowledge for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks, target 3.D.
China’s successful health efforts have resulted in achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4 – to reduce under-5 mortality rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. This article examines the trends in the under-5 mortality rates, and the specific causes of mortality within regions of China. Policy addressing the SDG 3.2 goal of reducing child mortality, should focus on addressing the disparities between regions, as well as the prevention of the greatest causes of child mortality.
Worldwide, the majority of women who die from breast or cervical cancer live in low-income and middle-income countries. Although proven and cost-effective interventions are available, incidence and related mortality from these cancers in some low-resource settings are increasing. In this first paper of the Lancet Series on health, equity, and women’s cancers, authors outline the consequences of these global inequities in cancer survival for women. The Series seeks to provide an advocacy and action framework for radically improving progress toward closing this global cancer divide.
This Article extends the theory of so-called “neighbourhood effects” to explain the health of people living in slums; authors note that although densely populated neighbourhoods can promote the spread of disease, they can also amplify the benefits of interventions because beneficial effects are shared across many people. This neighbourhood effect is likely to offer increasing returns to investments to create a healthy environment and should be capitalised on to achieve SDG 3. The paper identifies how slums should be included in censuses to identify local priorities for action.
This article addresses the health needs of slum residents, who are at an increased risk of developing mental health problems, non-communicable diseases, malnutrition, infectious diseases, and injuries due to violence. Children are especially vulnerable, as malnutrition can lead to stunted growth and impaired cognitive development. Slum health is under-represented in the scientific literature, despite an estimated doubling of slum populations by 2030, from today’s figure of 1 billion. Addressing the health-care needs of people living in slums will be vital to achieving SDG 3 and is related to SDG 1.
In 2014, the authors of this Comment published a call to action in The Lancet to eliminate violence against women, a goal that has since been included in global policy under the SDG 5 of increasing women’s empowerment and gender equality. Here, the same authors ask what progress has since been made, highlighting the WHO’s Global Plan of Action to strengthen health systems’ response to interpersonal violence. Increased political engagement will be necessary to sustain encouraging trends of decreasing violence and to achieve the SDG 5 target during an era when women’s rights remain at risk.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death in Africa, yet its epidemiology is not well described throughout African countries. This study reports the clinical characteristics and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in African countries. As a part of SDG 3, this study also describes the state of hepatocellular carcinoma management across African countries, which could inform health policymaking for reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases.
This paper is about the importance educating midwives on malaria. Malaria complicates 80% of pregnancies in Uganda, therefore equipping midwives with the necessary information to deliver malaria-related in-service education to pregnant women could reduce infant and maternal mortality in Uganda. This relates to SDG 3 and in-particular the targets 3.1 concerned with maternal mortality and 3.3 concerned with ending the epidemic of malaria.
Soil-transmitted helminth infection is the most common parasitic human disease, affecting an estimated 1·45 billion individuals worldwide. School-age children are at especially high risk of morbidity from infection and as a result, deworming campaigns are often targeted to this age group. This study is the first to synthesise existing research reporting the effect of either targeted or mass distribution of deworming programmes, and suggests that expanding campaigns community-wide in endemic areas could reduce the incidence of these infections in school-age children.
This paper examines the use of contraceptives and the social influence surrounding their use in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research shows that women wish to control birth numbers but few use contraception, thus increasing population and adding pressure on scarce resources, as well as contributing to increased mortality and general ill-health. This paper addresses SDG 3 (Good health and well-being) as well as SDG 5 (Gender equality).