This Article extends the theory of so-called “neighbourhood effects” to explain the health of people living in slums; authors note that although densely populated neighbourhoods can promote the spread of disease, they can also amplify the benefits of interventions because beneficial effects are shared across many people. This neighbourhood effect is likely to offer increasing returns to investments to create a healthy environment and should be capitalised on to achieve SDG 3. The paper identifies how slums should be included in censuses to identify local priorities for action.
This article addresses the health needs of slum residents, who are at an increased risk of developing mental health problems, non-communicable diseases, malnutrition, infectious diseases, and injuries due to violence. Children are especially vulnerable, as malnutrition can lead to stunted growth and impaired cognitive development. Slum health is under-represented in the scientific literature, despite an estimated doubling of slum populations by 2030, from today’s figure of 1 billion. Addressing the health-care needs of people living in slums will be vital to achieving SDG 3 and is related to SDG 1.
In 2014, the authors of this Comment published a call to action in The Lancet to eliminate violence against women, a goal that has since been included in global policy under the SDG 5 of increasing women’s empowerment and gender equality. Here, the same authors ask what progress has since been made, highlighting the WHO’s Global Plan of Action to strengthen health systems’ response to interpersonal violence. Increased political engagement will be necessary to sustain encouraging trends of decreasing violence and to achieve the SDG 5 target during an era when women’s rights remain at risk.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death in Africa, yet its epidemiology is not well described throughout African countries. This study reports the clinical characteristics and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in African countries. As a part of SDG 3, this study also describes the state of hepatocellular carcinoma management across African countries, which could inform health policymaking for reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases.
China’s successful health efforts have resulted in achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4 – to reduce under-5 mortality rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. This article examines the trends in the under-5 mortality rates, and the specific causes of mortality within regions of China. Policy addressing the SDG 3.2 goal of reducing child mortality, should focus on addressing the disparities between regions, as well as the prevention of the greatest causes of child mortality.
In this article a new mathematical model incorporating both vaccination and quarantine to study the dynamics of Ebola epidemic has been developed and comprehensively analyzed. The existence as well as uniqueness of the solution to the model is also verified and the basic reproduction number is calculated. Different rates of vaccination to predict the effect of vaccination on the infected individual over time and that of quarantine are discussed. The results show that quarantine and vaccination are very effective ways to control Ebola epidemic, supporting SDG 3.
Alcohol use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disability and premature mortality. Structured psychological treatments are recommended as first-line interventions for harmful drinking; however, poor access to primary care services limits their accessibility. This trial conducted in India provides proof of principle that strategies for behavioural change can be delivered effectively by non-specialist health workers in a primary-care setting. Such a strategy could help to close the large and rising global treatment gap for alcohol use disorders and directly contributes to SDG 3 target 5.
Elsevier,

Lancet Psychiatry Vol 4 No 1 January 2017

This Comment by Anita Riecher-Rössler explores the connections between goals 5 and goals 3: depression in women; the role of the sex hormones oestradiol and progesterone in anxiety, trauma-related, and stress-related disorders; schizophrenic psychoses in women; and violence against women, and its effects on mental health.
Elsevier,

The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 4 No 1 January 2017

In this Comment, Louise Howard and colleagues review the mental health literature and report that many researchers are not considering or reporting the role of sex and gender within their studies. This “gender neutral” approach, they argue, is in fact gender biased, as it undermines scientific validity and efficiency, and means gender-sensitive treatments and services cannot be designed or delivered. The authors call for greater awareness of this issue by funders and journals, and gender parity in mental health research populations.
The authors propose a new prediction model of infectious disease with new vaccination strategy based on network structures and dynamic replicator. They consider the subsidies of vaccine failure and the incentive strategy for medical treatment to promote that individuals take the initiative to vaccinate. Vaccination is key to the advancement of several of the targets of SDG 3.

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