The cost of the health SGDs
How much will it cost to reach the health-related SDGs in low-income and middle-income countries? This model-based projection analysis funded by the World Health Organization estimates that an extra $274 billion spending on health is needed per year by 2030 to make progress towards the SDG 3 targets—the equivalent of $58 per person. If actually spent, 97 million lives could be saved and life expectancy increased by 3·1–8·4 years.
Kidney diseases (KDs), both acute and chronic, are recognized as major public health issues worldwide and important contributors to the rising burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). More than half of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) do not receive any treatment, especially in the low and low middle income countries (LMICs). Similarly, acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes to about 1.7 million preventable deaths every year worldwide. There is a critical requirement for the development of an implementation framework tailored to the local needs of health systems and to optimize the quality of care for patients at risk for developing KD in limited-resource settings. SDG 3.4 specifically addresses reduction of premature mortality from NCDs.
The transition from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has shifted the policy debate from growth to ‘quality of growth’ (QG). We explore a new dataset on QG by the IMF and classify 93 developing countries for the period 1990–2011 in terms of Hopefuls, Contenders and Best Performers. The aims are as follows: (i) to depict the contradiction between high-growth and poor social welfare and (ii) to assess the influence of education and health spending on the QG. The findings have implications on education and health policy, and support SDGs 3 and 4.
Polluted air was responsible in 2015 for 6·4 million deaths worldwide. Can walking or cycling in polluted cities negate the health benefits of exercise by increasing exposure to airborne pollutants? This systematic review in The Lancet Public Health by Magda Cepeda and colleagues provides a clear answer to this question: it compares exposure to carbon monoxide, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particles between commuters using active and motorised transport. The study provides important insights to support target SDG 3.9 to substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air.
Ending preventable deaths of children under 5 is a target of SDG 3. This article recognises that pneumonia deaths among children younger than 5 years old have declined between 2000 and 2015. Vaccine and antibiotic use have spurred this mortality reduction but maximum benefits will only be achieved with new interventions working synergistically with established approaches.

Futures, Available online 19 October 2016

Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is vital for advancing the SDGs. This paper looks at transformative learning that prepares students for societal change. The discussion is grounded both in theories about hope from disparate scientific disciplines and in empirical research about young people’s hope concerning global climate change. These insights particularly inform SDG 4.7 to ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, as well as SDGs 3, 11 and 13.
Mental ill health is the third biggest cause of absence in the workplace. The mental health equivalent of a physical first-aid course provides participants with the skills and confidence to recognise the signs and symptoms of common mental health issues and effectively guide a person towards the right support. By adpating this course, more efforts can be made to meet SDG 3.4 by utilising preventive methods and treatment to promote mental health and well-being.
This case study looks at the impact of stress on a part-time worker with celebral palsy, and its effect on their well-being. The study shows how using a proactive approach, including the use of HSE stress management standards, can help to avoid negative outcomes for the employee. Stress management in the workplace contributes to the advancement of SDG 3.4 to prevent and treat mental health issues and promote well-being.
PTSD Resolution has launched a training programme for managers with employees who are suffering from PTSD. The programme was initially set up in response to demand from employers of former soldiers. Programmes to tackle PTS contribute to advancing SDG 3.4 to prevent and treat mental health issues and promote well-being
This article reports the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD) assessment of mortality and causes of death, which provides new and robust evidence on the patterns and levels of mortality worldwide, expanding on previous analyses by further investigating the main determinants of epidemiological patterns and trends across geographies and over time. The comparison of estimates of observed mortality levels with patterns expected based on socio-demographic indices provides an in-depth understanding of national health challenges and priority areas for intervention, including in addressing the targets in support of good health and wellbeing.