, Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, Volume 24, April 2018
Background: Older adults are at increased risk of malnutrition compared to their younger counterparts. Malnutrition screening should be conducted using a valid malnutrition screening tool. An aim of the Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life (HDHL) Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) ‘Malnutrition in the Elderly Knowledge Hub’ (MaNuEL) was to review the reported validity of existing malnutrition screening tools used in older adults.
, Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14, April 2018
While the sale of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is nearly invisible in and marginal to official economic statistics, it is an important source of income for many rural populations in Amazonia. This paper discuss a NTFPs production and marketing chain (Mauritia flexuosa fruits) in Abaetetuba County, Northern Brazil. Research was carried out using the following methods: participant observation, application of semi-structured questionnaires, and by accompanying production during harvest months in 2015.
, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 185, 1 April 2018
Background: Concurrent psychosocial problems may synergistically increase the risk of HIV infection (syndemics), representing a challenge for prevention. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of syndemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) enrolled in the Brazilian pre-exposure prophylaxis demonstration study (PrEP Brasil Study). Methods: Secondary cross-sectional analysis of the PrEP Brasil Study was performed.
, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 24, April 2018
Objectives: This paper review trends in emerging infections and the need for increased clinical and laboratory surveillance. Methods: Factors that contributed to the emergence of recent outbreaks have been reviewed. Known, major outbreaks over the past two decades were reviewed. Results: We identified at least four major drivers of emergent infections: (i) increasing density of the human population; (ii) stress from farmland expansion on the environment; (iii) globalization of the food market and manufacturing; (iv) environmental contamination.
, World Development, Volume 103, March 2018
Data collection methods and poverty measures have not caught up with the reality of an increasingly urbanised world; as a result, urban poverty may be underestimated. This has important implications for targeting interventions and allocating resources in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
, Geoforum, Volume 90, March 2018
Referred to as the ‘forgotten causalities’ of climate change (Cutter 1995), very few studies have examined the precise nature and magnitude of climate change impacts on children, let alone on the growing number of orphans and vulnerable children in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), where climate change is already expected to exact its worst humanitarian toll. This paper examines personal, familial, and contextual circumstances that arise when children lose their parents to HIV/AIDS and how these situations mediate exposure to the impacts of climate-related disasters.
, International Journal of Educational Development, Volume 59, March 2018
Programs to keep young women in school across the developing world have become widespread. Education is key to improving their quality of life, but keeping them in school is a significant challenge. This article examines a scholarship program that provides 25 days of intensive leadership training for young indigenous women using a peer tutorial system. The program offers a unique experience, a variety of practical training, opportunities for personal growth, and evidence of empowerment.
, Electricity Journal, Volume 31, March 2018
This paper reviews the Brazilian experience with support mechanisms to promote renewable energy generation, from feed-in tariffs in the early 2000 s to the current auction process, with a focus on wind energy generation. Brazil's original and innovative approach includes investment coordination mechanisms that have reduced risks enough to make wind energy a viable option.
, Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Volume 41, March 2018
Fear of crime, which may be present without experiencing an actual crime, can restrict one's daily physical and mental activities and reduce quality of life. In previous research, fear of crime was measured by regional surveys. Though useful for confirming group characteristics, regional surveys cannot measure in real-time, assess individual characteristics, or provide an objective measure of anxiety.