Gender equality and women's empowerment

Gender equality and women's empowerment play a vital role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) outlined by the United Nations. Acknowledging the significance of SDG 5, which explicitly targets gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls, it's worth noting that these elements are fundamentally tied to all 17 goals. Each goal, whether it pertains to poverty eradication, quality education, or climate action, is directly or indirectly affected by gender dynamics. Gender inequality inhibits economic growth (SDG 8) by depriving economies of the full potential of half its population, thereby exacerbating poverty (SDG 1) and hunger (SDG 2). Additionally, gender-based discrimination can limit access to quality education (SDG 4) and decent work (SDG 8) for women and girls, further perpetuating inequality. In health matters, gender roles and stereotypes often result in disparities in healthcare access and outcomes (SDG 3). With respect to environmental sustainability (SDGs 13, 14, and 15), women, particularly those in rural areas, bear the brunt of climate change impacts, but they also hold unique knowledge and skills crucial for mitigation and adaptation strategies. Likewise, women's underrepresentation in decision-making roles limits their influence on peace and justice (SDG 16) and partnerships for goals (SDG 17). Thus, achieving gender equality isn't only about justice for women and girls, but also about progress on every SDG. Women's empowerment creates a multiplier effect that boosts economic growth and promotes sustainable development, thereby setting a direct path towards achieving the SDGs. Encouragingly, concerted efforts worldwide are recognizing and amplifying women's roles in society, placing gender equality and women's empowerment at the heart of the SDGs. Such advancements signify a positive stride towards a balanced and equitable world.


Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 116, 1 October 2017, Pages 372-378.

This article develops a theoretical framework to develop current understandings of evolutionary origins of same-sex attraction within women. This research may therefore help drive forward SDG 10 (reduced inequalities).
Background The Sustainable Development Goals strongly focus on equity. Goal 5 explicitly aims to empower all women and girls, reinforcing the need to have a reliable indicator to track progress. Our objective was to develop a novel women's empowerment indicator from widely available data sources, broadening opportunities for monitoring and research on women's empowerment. Methods We used Demographic and Health Survey data from 34 African countries, targeting currently partnered women.
Elsevier, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 72, 1 September 2017
Working mothers often find themselves in a difficult situation when trying to balance work and family responsibilities and to manage expectations about their work and parental effectiveness. Family-friendly policies such as maternity leave have been introduced to address this issue. But how are women who then make the decision to go or not go on maternity leave evaluated?
This paper extends the debate about redressing persistent gender inequality in Australia by examining the relationship between labour productivity and the wage gap in all states and territories (1986–2013). It is a critical case study as Australia's widening gender wage gap is contrary to other developed nations. Using four different estimation methods, we find that reducing the gap by 10% can boost per capita output up to 3%. To check the robustness of our findings, we also control for the effects of both physical and human capital.
Given the increased vulnerability to, and rise in reports of, sexual violence in post-disaster situations this article seeks to explore the role of self-defense programmes as a response to addressing violence against women and girls. It draws on the authors’ experience of post-earthquake Nepal in 2015. We argue that self-defense training can play a crucial role in challenging normative gender roles, raising confidence and self-esteem in girls and women during and post disaster, and call for further research to take place at the local level to explore this important issue further.

Journeys of Embodiment at the Intersection of Body and Culture, The Developmental Theory of Embodiment, 2017, Pages 201-256

This chapter advances goals 3 and 5 by examining how the adult women can recapture physical and mental freedom, empowering relationships and membership in equitable communities.

Journeys of Embodiment at the Intersection of Body and Culture, The Developmental Theory of Embodiment, 2017, Pages 1-42

This chapter advances goals 3 and 5 by examining the description of the Developmental Theory of Embodiment, including two personal examples.
Strategic human resource management theory suggests that diversity and equality management (DEM) systems provide a firm with a competitive advantage, leading to superior performance. This study proposes and tests a moderated mediation model focusing on antecedents (i.e. top management team gender diversity) and consequences (i.e. performance) of DEM systems in the context of lower through middle management (LTMM) gender diversity. The model was tested in 248 medium-to large-sized organizations using time-lagged survey and archival data.
Existing studies on adaptation to climate change mainly focus on a comparison of male-headed and female-headed households. Aiming at a more nuanced gender analysis, this study examines how husbands and wives within the same household perceive climate risks and use group-based approaches as coping strategies. The data stem from a unique intra-household survey involving 156 couples in rural Kenya. The findings indicate that options for adapting to climate change closely interplay with husbands’ and wives’ roles and responsibilities, social norms, risk perceptions and access to resources.
Canadian farmer Kim Jo Bliss
This article is taken from the series "The View From Here", in which farming women from around the world give an insight into rural life. From the challenges of making an income to support the family and local economy to dealing with extreme weather and untamed lands, these women give their unique perspective on working in a male-dominated industry. It helps to highlight the importance of SDG 5, Gender equality.