Elsevier, Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 1, December 01, 2014
This paper looks ahead, beyond the projected large-scale market penetration of vehicles containing advanced batteries, to the time when the spent batteries will be ready for final disposition. It describes a working system for recycling, using lead-acid battery recycling as a model. Recycling of automotive lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is more complicated and not yet established because few end-of-life batteries will need recycling for another decade. There is thus the opportunity now to obviate some of the technical, economic, and institutional roadblocks that might arise.
Elsevier, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 77, 15 August 2014
Analysis of steam and water losses in the Total Site (TS) utility system is critical in process industry. Makeup water plays an important role in maintaining the water balance in the steam and condensate systems. Total Site Heat Integration (TSHI) offers a solution to increase energy savings as well as energy efficiency and consequently, to promote sustainability. However, so far most studies on TSHI have not considered the water sensible heat in TS targeting; e.g. for Boiler Feed Water (BFW) preheating and steam superheating during steam generation.
What is the best strategy to encourage research and development on new energy technologies in a market economy? What steps can ensure a rapid and efficient transition to an economy that has much lower net carbon emissions? This paper shows that, under limited conditions, a necessary and sufficient condition for an appropriate innovational environment is a universal, credible, and durable price on carbon emissions.