Global

Lithium ion batteries (LIB) continue to gain market share in response to the increasing demand for electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and energy storage. The increased demand for LIB has highlighted potential problems in the supply chain of raw materials needed for their manufacture. Some critical metals used in LIB, namely lithium, cobalt, and graphite are scarce, are not currently mined in large quantities, or are mined in only a few countries whose trade policies could limit availability and impact prices.
RNA binding proteins are critical to the maintenance of the transcriptome via controlled regulation of RNA processing and transport. Alterations of these proteins impact multiple steps of the RNA life cycle resulting in various molecular phenotypes such as aberrant RNA splicing, transport, and stability. Disruption of RNA binding proteins and widespread RNA processing defects are increasingly recognized as critical determinants of neurological diseases.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a severe and disabling psychiatric disorder that presents several challenges for neuroscience. Recent advances in its genetic and developmental causation, as well as its neuropsychological basis, are reviewed. Hypotheses concerning an imbalance between goal-directed and habitual behavior together with neural correlates in cortico-striatal circuitry are evaluated and contrasted with metacognitive theories.
Here, Nestler and Lüscher link addiction circuits to epigenetic mechanisms that are engaged by drug exposure or reflect life experience. These molecular alterations may not only explain the basis of drug-evoked synaptic plasticity, but may also help understand individual addiction vulnerability.
Threat processing is central to understanding debilitating fear- and trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Progress has been made in understanding the neural circuits underlying the “engram” of threat or fear memory formation that complements a decades-old appreciation of the neurobiology of fear and threat involving hub structures such as the amygdala.
Elsevier, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 104, April 2019
The advent of more proactive consumers, the so-called “prosumers” with production and storage capabilities, is empowering the consumers and bringing new opportunities and challenges to the operation of power systems in a market environment. Recently, a novel proposal for the design and operation of electricity markets has emerged: these so-called peer-to-peer (P2P) electricity markets conceptually allow the prosumers to directly share their electrical energy and investment.

There have been several recent studies addressing the genetic architecture of depression. This review serves to take stock of what is known now about the genetics of depression, how it has increased our knowledge and understanding of its mechanisms, and how the information and knowledge can be leveraged to improve the care of people affected.

Pyrolysis converts biomass into liquid, gaseous and solid fuels. This work reviews the existing models for biomass pyrolysis, including kinetic, network and mechanistic models. The kinetic models are based on the global reaction mechanisms and have been extensively used for a wide range of biomass under various operating conditions. Major emphases have been on the network models as these models predict the structural changes during biomass pyrolysis. Key aspects of various network models include reaction schemes, structural characteristics and applications to CFD simulations.

Perinatal depression (PND) is a heterogeneous disorder with differences in timing of onset of depression, which influences symptomology, severity, and treatment efficacy. Researchers must embrace the heterogeneity to bring fruition to a precision medicine approach for women in reproductive mental health care. Galea and Frokjaer discuss the heterogeneity of perinatal depression based on timing onset, which influences symptoms and has implications for etiology and treatment efficacy.

Elsevier, Advances in Radiation Oncology, Volume 4, April - June 2019
The proportion of female trainees in radiation oncology has generally declined despite increasing numbers of female medical students; as a result, radiation oncology is among the bottom 5 specialties in terms of the percentage of female applicants. Recently, social media has been harnessed as a tool to bring recognition to underrepresented groups within medicine and other fields.

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