Elsevier, Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 7, October 2017
Enzymes are used in biocatalytic processes for the efficient and sustainable production of pharmaceuticals, fragrances, fine chemicals, and other products. Most bioprocesses exploit chemistry found in nature, but we are now entering a realm of biocatalysis that goes well beyond. Enzymes have been engineered to catalyze reactions previously only accessible with synthetic catalysts. Because they can be tuned by directed evolution, many of these new biocatalysts have been shown to perform abiological reactions with high activity and selectivity.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 7, October 2017
The paper presents the most recent advances in applications of alternative medium to replace polar aprotic solvents such as dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylacetamide (DMAc) or N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Focus is made on the use of nonionic designer surfactant (e.g. TPGS-750-M) in water instead of traditional organic solvents. Much attention is given to its applications to several commonly used transformations in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthesis, such as amidation reactions, Suzuki–Miyaura cross-couplings, nitro group reductions, and aromatic nucleophilic substitutions.
Elsevier, Kidney International Supplements, Volume 7, October 2017
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health concern and a key determinant of poor health outcomes. While the burden of CKD is reasonably well defined in developed countries, increasing evidence indicates that the CKD burden may be even greater in developing countries.
Elsevier, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 123, 15 October 2017
The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), adopted in September 2015, are accompanied by targets which have to be met individually and collectively by the signatory states. SDG14 Life Below Water aims to lay the foundation for the integrated and sustainable management of the oceans. However, any environmental management has to be based around targets which are SMART – specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bounded – otherwise it is not possible to determine whether management actions are successful and achieve the desired aims.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 28, October 2017
Since the 1950s the amount of plastics in the marine environment has increased dramatically. Worldwide there is a growing concern about the risks and possible adverse effects of (micro)plastics. This paper reflects on the sources and effects of marine litter and the effects of policies and other actions taken worldwide. Current knowledge offers a solid basis for effective action. Yet, so far the effects of policies and other initiatives are still largely insufficient.
Elsevier, Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, October 2017
Ecological infrastructure (EI) refers to ecosystems that deliver services to society, functioning as a nature-based equivalent of, or complement to, built infrastructure. EI is critical for socio-economic development, supporting a suite of development imperatives at local, national and international scales. This paper presents the myriad of ways that EI supports sustainable development, using South Africa and the South African National Development Plan as a case study, linking to the Sustainable Development Goals on a global level.
Elsevier, Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 34, October 2017
Urban areas account for 70% of carbon emissions, and are likely to be the locus of attention to reduce future emissions in developing countries. However, only a small share of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects under the Kyoto Protocol and only 30% of public climate finance is invested in urban areas. One of the main reasons is that most urban climate change mitigation projects rather provide development than climate benefits, so the question is whether alternative mechanisms can mobilize urban mitigation projects.
Elsevier, The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Volume 2, October 2017
Background Studies have shown wide variation in the prevalence of lactose malabsorption across the world, but no systematic reviews or meta-analyses have recently assessed the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in different geographical areas. We aimed to present an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in adults, by countries and regions, and to assess the variation between different testing methods.
Elsevier, The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Volume 2, October 2017
Background So far, a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis has not been done of the prevalence of primary antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori in the Asia-Pacific region. We aimed to assess the trends and regional differences in primary antibiotic resistance to H pylori in the Asia-Pacific region and to examine the relation between resistance and first-line eradication. Methods We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of primary antibiotic resistance to H pylori and the efficacy of first-line regimens in the Asia-Pacific region.
Elsevier, The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, Volume 5, October 2017
The World Professional Association for Transgender Health's standards of care recommend suspending puberty, preferably with the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, in certain gender non-conforming minors (aged under 18 years) who have undergone a psychiatric assessment and have reached at least Tanner stage II of puberty. This approach seeks to lessen the discordance between assigned natal sex and gender identity by temporarily halting the development of secondary sexual characteristics, essentially widening the temporal window for gender clarification.