Elsevier,

Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 1, 2014, Pages 2-7

Currently lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries used in significant numbers in vehicles are designed to last the life of the vehicle. They will not reach their end-of-life for another 10 years. This paper examines how the model used to recycle lead-acid batteries could be applied to Li-ion batteries and ensure steps are put in place so that the economical and sustainable benefits can be achieved at the end of its useful life. This addresses SDG 12, in particular waste reduction and reuse.

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